AP Human Geo Vocab

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Annexation
Legally adding land area to a city in the United States
Antarctica
What is the political situation for Antarctica? Who if anyone owns / claims it?
Apartheid
Means "apartness" racial segregation in South Africa.
Balkinization
Process by which state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
Border landscape
Three types of borders. 1) geometric 2) physical and 3) cultural
Boundary disputes
A disagreement between neighboring states over policies to be applied to their common border, often induced by differing customs regulations, movement of nomadic groups, or illegal immigration, or emigration
Antecedent
One drawn across an area before it is well populated, that is before most of the popular landscape features were put in place.
Subsequent
Boundary drawn after the development of the cultural landscape.
Consequent
A type of subsequent boundary also called an ethnographic where the border drawn is to accommodate existing religious, linguistic, ethnic, or economic differences between countries.
Superimposed
A boundary formed on existing cultural landscapes, a country, or a people by a conquering or colonizing power that is unconcerned about preexisting cultural patterns.
Relic
A former boundary line that no longer functions as such is still marked by some landscape features or differences on the two sides.
Delimitation
The translation of the written terms of a boundary treaty into an official cartographic representation.
Demarcation
The actual placing of a political boundary on the landscape by means of barriers, fences, walls, or other markers.
Natural/Physical
Those boundaries based on recognizable physiologic features such as mountains, rivers, and lakes.
Ethnographic/Cultural
When the boundary coincides with differences in ethnicity, especially language and religion.
Geometric
Political boundary defined and delimited as a straight line or an arch
Buffer State
An independent but small and weak country lying between two powerful countries.
Centrifugal
Forces within a state that divide people
Centripetal
Forces within a state that unify people
City- State
A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland.
Colonialism
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose it's political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory
Confederation
A group of states United for a common purpose
Conference of Berlin 1884
What were the consequences of the conferences for the continent of Africa?
Core regions
Regions that dominate trade, control the most advanced technology and have the highest levels of productivity within diversified economies
Periphery regions
Regions with undeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity.
Decolonization
The acquisition by colonized people of control over their own territory
Devolution
The transfer of certain powers from the state central Governemt to separate political subdivisions within the state's territory.
Domino theory
If one country in a region chose or was forced to accept a communist political and economic system, then neighboring countries would be irresistibly susseptable to falling to communism.
DMZ
The Demilitarized zone between North and South Korea
EEZ
Exclusive economic zone as established in the United nations on the law of the sea, a zone of exploration extending 200 nautical miles seaward from a coastal state that has exclusive mineral and fishing rights over it.
Electoral geography
The study of interactions among space, place, and region and conduct and results of elections
Enclave
A piece of territory surrounded by but not part of a country
Exclave
A piece of national territory separated from the main body of a country
Ethnic enclave
A small area occupied by a distinctive minority culture
European union
Am economic association established in 1957 by a number of western European countries to promote free trade among members often called the common market
Federal state
An internal organization of a state that allocated most powers to units of local government
Forward- Thrust Capital
A capital city deliberately sited in a states frontier zone
Geopolitics
The branch of political geography treating national power, foreign policy and international relations as influences by geographic considerations of location, space, resources, and demography.
Gerrymandering
To redraw voting district boundaries in such ways as to give one political party maximum electoral advantage and to reduce that of another party, to fragment voting blocks, or to achieve other non democratic objectives
Heartland theory
The belief of Halford MacKinder that the interior of Eurasia provided a likely base for world conquest
Rimland theory
The belief of Nicholas Spykman that domination of coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide a base for world conquest.
International organization
Group that includes two or more states seeking political and or economic cooperation with each other
Iron curtain
Who coined the phrase and which area is included within the iron curtain.
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