Myers Psychology 10th edition Chapter 7
Terms in this set (44)
In classical conditioning, the initial stage when one links a neural stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning.)
The view that psychology should be 1) an objective science that 2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with 1 but not 2.
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
The acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, watching others or through language.
A mental representation of the layout in one's environment. For example, exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
A stimulus that gains it's reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer (secondary reinforcer).
In classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus.
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response.
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
In classical Conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
A desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
A procedure in which the conditioned stimulus is one with a neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned a tone predicts food and might then learn that light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone. (second-order conditioning)
A desire to perform a behavior effectively for it's own sake.
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
Law of Effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
The process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy.
The process of observing and imitating specific behavior.
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (not punishment).
In classical conditioning, a stimulus elicits a response before conditioning.
Learning by observing others.
Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.
In operant conditioning, a chamber (also known as Skinner's Box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to receive food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate or bar pressing or key pecking.
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
Partial (intermittent) reinforcement
Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented with a response, strengthens the response.
An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
Positive, constructive helpful behavior. The opposite is antisocial behavior.
An event that tends to decrease the behavior that it follows.
In operant conditioning any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
A pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced.
Behavior that occurs as an automoatic response to some stimulus.
An operant conditioning procedure which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
An event or situation that evokes a response.
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically- triggers a response.
In classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (such as food in the mouth.
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
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