Climate and Earth's Energy Balance
Terms in this set (97)
Atmospheric condition now
Weather over last 30 years
Gaseous form of something that could be a liquid
Movement of water
Snow, rain, freezing rain, hail
Water is absorbed into roots
Evaporation of water from plant leaves, plant sweat
Moves downward through openings in the soil to replenish aquifers under the ground. Process of liquid slowly passing through filter.
Water cycle redistributes ____ around Earth
Water cycle also absorbs and redistributes solar energy between locations in a process called...
Second most common mechanism of redistribution of thermal energy is the process of _____
_____ is the driving force behind weather
3rd most common mechanism of redistribution of thermal energy is _____
Radiation of infra-red
Energy is transferred in 3 ways:
One place on wave to same exact place on another wave.
Amount of waves pass a given point per second.
If a particle is above 0 K, it will emit...
Energy transferred through space as Electromagnetic waves
Main source of radiation
Uses of radio wavelengths
Uses of microwaves
- Heat up water in food
- Cell phones
Uses of infra-red
- Night vision
Uses of visible light
Uses of UV light
Uses of x-rays
- See through things
Uses of gamma rays
- Radiation therapy for cancer
Are gamma rays faster than radio waves?
No, they're the same speed
Ages of temp. scales: oldest to youngest
Forces in the Universe
Short wv. length
Long wv. length
_____ heats up and cools off slowly
_____ heats up and cools off quickly
Variables of rates of absorption
Amount of solar radiation received
Earth absorbs and reflects solar radiation
- 6% atmosphere
- 25% clouds
- 4% earth's surface
- 15% atmosphere
- 50% earth's surface: direct and indirect
Transfer of energy through contact of molecules
Molecules have to be close together and it only occurs in troposphere
Transfer of energy by the flow of a heated substance
Steps of Convection
Hot air expands and rises
Cools and contracts
Temp is _____
Heat is _____
Not man made
Measure of how rapidly or slowly molecules move
Transfer of energy between substances of different temperatures: flow from more to less
Freezing and boiling point in Fahrenheit
Freezing, boiling, and absolute zero of Celsius
Absolute zero: -273
Absolute zero in kelvin
Absolute zero: 0
1mL = 1 g = 1cm^3
Energy needed to turn to gas
Latent heat of vaporization
Highest of any solid or liquid except...
Heat needed to raise one gram of water by 1 degree celsius
Change from liquid to gas requires
At 100 C
equal amount of water to gas and gas to water: equilibrium
Amount of calories in a Calorie
Why sweating cools
Energy from body heat is evaporated away
Liquid to ice requires _____ to be removed for 1 g of water
Water has highest latent heat of fusion except for...
Why freezing water around oranges is good
Heat from water freezing outside of orange transfers to orange, warming it.
Ice has a _____ structure
"These gases absorb the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth and re-radiate the energy as heat back towards the Earth, causing a warming known as..."
Most common Greenhouse Gas
Most important Greenhouse Gas
Most potent Greenhouse Gas
#1 producer of methane
#2 producer of methane
CFC's are the only Greenhouse Gases that are completely...
Why do we study the planet as one interconnected system?
One thing can have multiple effects to the Earth.
How do we know that the Earth's climate is changing?
There has been a change of temp through the last few decades.
What is the role of greenhouse gases in that change?
They trap heat in atmosphere
Why can't radiation first entering the atmosphere be absorbed by air?
Wavelength is too short. Radiation is absorbed by Earth instead.
When does air absorb energy from sun?
After Earth re-radiates longer wavelength radiation.
How does air transfer energy?
Conduction and convection
Water _____ light
Light penetrates first______ of seawater-zone of photosynthesis
Water is a good heat buffer because...
Water can absorb lots of heat
Range of ocean temps
Celsius: -2 to 35
Fahrenheit: 28 to 95
Range of land temps
Celsius: -70 to 35
Fahrenheit: -94 to 189
A moving mass of water within a larger mass.
A current only on the surface and is wind driven.
Causes of Density currents
Temp and Salinity
Depth of surface currents
up to 100m
Surface currents are driving by...
Surface currents can reach up to speeds of...
Water mass in which seas freeze, temps below 0 C coldest and most dense
Water mass that forms off Greenland when freezes. Less dense than Antarctic.
North Atlantic Deep
Water mass in which salty water decreases temp in winter and sinks.
Antarctic Intermediate Water
_______ Ocean contains all 3 masses
The ______ and _____ Oceans contain only the two Antarctic masses.
Surface water moving in giant circles
Movements of gyres
Hit a continent -> deflect currents to pole
Five major gyres
- N/S Atlantic
- N./S Pacific
Deflects free moving objects to the right (Clockwise)
Northern hemisphere (Coriolis Effect)
Deflects free moving objects to the left (counterclockwise)
Southern hemisphere (Coriolis Effect)
The _____ Ocean has one gyre because it's on one side of the _____
Gyres turn depending on...
the spin of the Earth
Gyres are used to...
Get warm water to cold latitudes and cold to equator
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