97 terms

Climate and Earth's Energy Balance

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Weather
Atmospheric condition now
Climate
Weather over last 30 years
Vapor
Gaseous form of something that could be a liquid
Transportation
Movement of water
Precipitation
Snow, rain, freezing rain, hail
Plant uptake
Water is absorbed into roots
Transpiration
Evaporation of water from plant leaves, plant sweat
Percolation
Moves downward through openings in the soil to replenish aquifers under the ground. Process of liquid slowly passing through filter.
Water cycle redistributes ____ around Earth
Heat
Water cycle also absorbs and redistributes solar energy between locations in a process called...
Latent heating
Second most common mechanism of redistribution of thermal energy is the process of _____
Convection
_____ is the driving force behind weather
Convection
3rd most common mechanism of redistribution of thermal energy is _____
Radiation of infra-red
Energy is transferred in 3 ways:
- Radiation
- Conduction
- Convection
Wavelength
One place on wave to same exact place on another wave.
Frequency
Amount of waves pass a given point per second.
If a particle is above 0 K, it will emit...
radiation
Absolute zero
Non-molecular movement
Energy transferred through space as Electromagnetic waves
Radiation
Main source of radiation
Solar Radiation
Uses of radio wavelengths
- Telescopes
- Communication
Uses of microwaves
- Heat up water in food
- Cell phones
Uses of infra-red
- Night vision
- TV
- Heat
Uses of visible light
TOO SEE
Uses of UV light
- Sanitation
Uses of x-rays
- See through things
Uses of gamma rays
- Radiation therapy for cancer
Are gamma rays faster than radio waves?
No, they're the same speed
Ages of temp. scales: oldest to youngest
Fahrenheit
Celsius
Kelvin
Forces in the Universe
Gravity
EM waves
Strong
Weak
High freq
Short wv. length
High NRG
...
Low freq
Long wv. length
Low NRG
...
_____ heats up and cools off slowly
Water
_____ heats up and cools off quickly
Land
Variables of rates of absorption
Physical characteristics
Amount of solar radiation received
Earth absorbs and reflects solar radiation
Reflected
- 6% atmosphere
- 25% clouds
- 4% earth's surface
Absorbed
- 15% atmosphere
- 50% earth's surface: direct and indirect
Transfer of energy through contact of molecules
Conduction
Molecules have to be close together and it only occurs in troposphere
Conduction
Transfer of energy by the flow of a heated substance
Convection
Steps of Convection
Hot air expands and rises
Cools and contracts
Sinks back
Temp is _____
Man made
Heat is _____
Not man made
Measure of how rapidly or slowly molecules move
Temperature
Transfer of energy between substances of different temperatures: flow from more to less
Heat
Freezing and boiling point in Fahrenheit
Freezing: 32
Boiling: 212
Freezing, boiling, and absolute zero of Celsius
Freezing: 0
Boiling: 100
Absolute zero: -273
Absolute zero in kelvin
Absolute zero: 0
1mL = 1 g = 1cm^3
...
Latent definition
Hidden
Energy needed to turn to gas
Latent heat of vaporization
Highest of any solid or liquid except...
ammonia
Heat needed to raise one gram of water by 1 degree celsius
One calorie
Change from liquid to gas requires
540 calories
At 100 C
equal amount of water to gas and gas to water: equilibrium
Amount of calories in a Calorie
1000 calories
Why sweating cools
Energy from body heat is evaporated away
Liquid to ice requires _____ to be removed for 1 g of water
80 cal
Water has highest latent heat of fusion except for...
Ammonia
Why freezing water around oranges is good
Heat from water freezing outside of orange transfers to orange, warming it.
Ice has a _____ structure
Lattice
"These gases absorb the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth and re-radiate the energy as heat back towards the Earth, causing a warming known as..."
Greenhouse Effect
Most common Greenhouse Gas
Water Vapor
Most important Greenhouse Gas
CO2
Most potent Greenhouse Gas
Methane
#1 producer of methane
Termites
#2 producer of methane
Cows
CFC's are the only Greenhouse Gases that are completely...
Man-made (Anthropogenic)
Why do we study the planet as one interconnected system?
One thing can have multiple effects to the Earth.
How do we know that the Earth's climate is changing?
There has been a change of temp through the last few decades.
What is the role of greenhouse gases in that change?
They trap heat in atmosphere
Why can't radiation first entering the atmosphere be absorbed by air?
Wavelength is too short. Radiation is absorbed by Earth instead.
When does air absorb energy from sun?
After Earth re-radiates longer wavelength radiation.
How does air transfer energy?
Conduction and convection
Water _____ light
Absorbs
Light penetrates first______ of seawater-zone of photosynthesis
100m
Water is a good heat buffer because...
Water can absorb lots of heat
Range of ocean temps
Celsius: -2 to 35
Fahrenheit: 28 to 95
Range of land temps
Celsius: -70 to 35
Fahrenheit: -94 to 189
A moving mass of water within a larger mass.
Current
A current only on the surface and is wind driven.
Surface current
Causes of Density currents
Temp and Salinity
Depth of surface currents
up to 100m
Surface currents are driving by...
Wind
Surface currents can reach up to speeds of...
100km/day
Water mass in which seas freeze, temps below 0 C coldest and most dense
Antarctic Bottom
Water mass that forms off Greenland when freezes. Less dense than Antarctic.
North Atlantic Deep
Water mass in which salty water decreases temp in winter and sinks.
Antarctic Intermediate Water
_______ Ocean contains all 3 masses
Atlantic
The ______ and _____ Oceans contain only the two Antarctic masses.
Pacific, Indian
Surface water moving in giant circles
Gyres
Movements of gyres
Hit a continent -> deflect currents to pole
Five major gyres
- N/S Atlantic
- N./S Pacific
- Indian
Deflects free moving objects to the right (Clockwise)
Northern hemisphere (Coriolis Effect)
Deflects free moving objects to the left (counterclockwise)
Southern hemisphere (Coriolis Effect)
The _____ Ocean has one gyre because it's on one side of the _____
Indian, Equator
Gyres turn depending on...
the spin of the Earth
Gyres are used to...
Get warm water to cold latitudes and cold to equator