Martin PHIL252 Ex1 copy

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1. Evans says that philosophy of religion is critical reflection on __________.
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Some believers think that there is no room for rational thought when it comes to religion; therefore, philosophy and religion cannot coincide. However, some believe the opposite and allow philosophy and religion to overlap. One must understand his thoughts on the relationship between religion and rational thought in order to begin thinking about the philosophy or religion.
Though the ideas or faith and revelation are good in and of themselves, Evans argues that they must be paired with critical thinking in order to have any relevance whatsoever when defending a religion against its critics. Because of the nature of fideism, it can dismiss arguments, saying that the skeptics sinoly have not yet been enlightened. This holds no weight in a real religious debate.
11. Explain Evans objection to neutralism.Neutralism is basically impossible because no matter what your beliefs are, you cannot just let go of them for the sake of discussion. And even if it were possible, it is not necessarily a desirable ideal because neutral people arguing isn't really arguing at all.12. What does Rene Descartes have to do with all of this?Rene Descartes was the ultimate neutralist because he questioned everything. The only think he did not doubt was his own existence. He attempted pure objectivity, but his ideas are no longer valid.13. Describe Critical Dialogue.Critical dialogue is where Fideism and Neutralism meet. This approach takes the faith of fideism and the reason of neutralism and tries to refute opposition to firmly held beliefs.TWO: 1 Explain the difference between monotheism, polytheism, and henotheism.Monotheism is the belief in and worship of one god. Polytheism is the belief in multiple gods. Henotheism is the belief is many gods, but the worship of and devotion to one god.2 What is the difference between pantheism and panentheism?Pantheism is the belief that God is not a personal being and is, in essence, the universe itself. Panentheism is the belief that while God includes the universe, the being of the deity actually expands past our known universe.3 Dualism is a variation of which view? What makes it distinct from that view?Polytheism; the Dualist believes in only 2 gods, typically with one being good and one evil.4 Deism is a variation of which view? What makes it distinct from that view?Theism; While the Deist believes in one God, he does not believe that this God is involved in his creation.5 What is the difference between atheism and agnosticism?Agnostics believe that there night be a god, but we will never be able to know for sure and, therefore, should not bother wondering about it. Atheists simply believe that there is no god whatsoever.6 What are some groups of religious atheists?Theravada Buddhists7 If God exists, then he is a being worthy of ___________.Worship9 What are five qualities that are often associated with the God of monotheism, since God is understood as the greatest being, the only one worthy of absolute worship and devotion?Omnipotence, omniscience, morally perfect, eternal, unchangeable10 What is the difference between an eternal and an everlasting view of God?Eternal timelessness means that God is outside of our concept of time. The everlasting view of God means that God operates within our view of time, but he has no beginning or end.11 What is the difference between contingent facts (or events) and necessary facts (or events)?Contingency means that if one fact is true, the other is also true. Necessary facts are when one might be true, but the second doesn't have to be true12 What is the Boethian solution to freedom and foreknowledge? What objection does Evans give?Boethius said that since God is outside of our time, he doesn't foreknow things he simply observes it. This doesn't work with the idea of divine sovereignty. If God doesn't foreknow things, he couldn't make sure that his will would be done on earth.13 What do theological compatibilists believe? What does Evans say is the problem with compatibilism?Compatibilists believe that everything that happens in the world is God's will. They also say that humans have free choice because one can be morally free even if there is only one option. The problem comes in when justifying the evil in the world. If compatibilism is correct, then evil is in God's will.14 What is molinism? What is the objection to molinism?Molinism is the belief that God foresaw what potential humans would do in each potential situation and created people with this knowledge and his will in mind. The primary objection is the middle knowledge, the knowledge that allows God to know what potential humans would do, is impossible.15 What is open theism? What objection does Evans give to that view?Open theism is the belief that it is impossible to know what choices free creatures will make. They say that God knows everything that is possible to know, but our choices is not one of those things. This view highly undermines the idea of God's sovereignty and his control over his will being done in the world.16 What is a valid argument? What is a sound argument?An argument is valid if the conclusion has to be true if the premises are true. An argument is sound when the conclusion and all the premises are known to be true.THREE: 1 What are the four types of arguments that have been most often been used as proofs of God's existence?Ontological, cosmological, teleological, moral3 Explain the fallacy of composition.The fallacy of composition wrongly assumes that just because all the individual members of a group share a certain quality, the group as a whole must also share that quality.4 Explain why some people think the Cosmological argument commits the fallacy of composition.Even though every individual item in the universe has a cause, the universe as a whole does not necessarily have a cause.5 Explain Evans' reply to the objection that the Cosmological argument (as he presented it) commits the fallacy of composition.Evans says that the argument is invalid because the Cosmological argument is not trying to discuss all contingent objects as a group, but merely some contingent objects. It is not the whole argument; it is a part argument.6 How might one reject premise (2) of Evans' version of the Cosmological argument?Premise 2 could be rejected by saying that 1) a contingent being could be uncaused, or 2) there is an infinite string of contingent beings that all cause one after the other.7 What are some examples of "things without knowledge" that act towards an end (or telos)?The kidneys expelling waste, the stomach digesting food, muscles extending and contracting8 Evolutionary theory has been used to call into question the validity of various versions of the teleological arguments. Evans gives three ways that defenders of the teleological argument might respond. What are those three ways?1) Attacks evolution itself, saying the creation science is scientifically superior. 2) Concedes that evolution has occurred, but that the process cannot be understood or explained purely mechanistically. 3) Concedes Darwinism as scientific explanations of universal order, questions if an ultimate explanation is still needed.9 One response to the moral argument is to claim that there are not universally binding moral obligations. What objections does Evans give to that claim?Evans says that while moral obligations might be relative to culture, moral truth is not. Moral truth is above culture and society.FOUR: 1 What are the two types of evil Evans discusses?Moral evil, Natural evil2 What is the difference between the logical form of the argument from evil and the evidential form of the argument from evil?The logical form of the arguments from evil says that God and evil cannot logically coexist. The evidential argument says that this coexistence is possible, but not probable.3 What is a theodicy and how does it differ from a defense?A theodicy is a response to the argument from evil that attempts to explain how God is justified in allowing evil. A defense just argues that God has reasons for allowing that we don't/can't know.4. In your own words, write an argument that, given the existence of moral evil, it is not logically possible that God exists.?5 What is a soul making theodicy?A soul making theodicy says that because the first and foremost purpose of the world is to cultivate individual moral and spiritual development, evil must be present in the world in order to teach people something different.6 What is a free will theodicy?A free will theodicy says that evil exists in the world because humans distort and misuse the gift of free will.7 Explain why Plantinga thinks that there are logically possible worlds that God cannot create.Plantinga says that since humans have free will, God cannot know what each individual will choose in any given situation. Therefore, there are some possible worlds that God cannot create.8. Do you think "pointless evil" exists? Why or why not???9 How does Evans define "horrendous evil?""[Evils that are] 'so destructive of meaning within an individual's life' that they seem to render the individual's, on the whole, not worth living."10 What is the doctrine of annihilationism? What is the doctrine of mild hell?Annihilationism is the view that God simply annihilates those who reject him in the end. Mild hell is something freely chosen by its inhabitants, not something the God assigns to certain people.FIVE: 1. Explain the narrow and broad sense of atheist and the narrow and broad sense of theist.Narrow atheism is the belief that there is no divine being that is all-knowing, all-powerful, and supremely good, but a broad atheist believes that there is no divine being at all. Narrow theism is the belief in a divine being that is all-knowing, all-powerful, supremely good, and created the world, while broad theism is the belief in some kind of divine being.2. Write out Rowe's actual argument:1. There exist instances of intense suffering which an omnipotent, omniscient being could have prevented without thereby losing some greater good or permitting some evil equally bad or worse. 2. An omniscient, wholly good being would prevent the occurrence of any intense suffering it could, unless it could not do so without losing some greater good or permitting some evil equally bad or worse. 3. There does not exist an omnipotent, omniscient, wholly good being.3. Is Rowe's argument valid? Explain.Yes - If the 2 premises are true, then the conclusion must also be true.4. Do you think Rowe's argument is sound? (If not, tell which premise you think might be false, and explain why you think it might be false.)???5. Explain why Rowe believed his first premise to be true. What were the examples of suffering that could have been avoided that he used to argue for the truth of (1)?Rowe says that though (1) cannot be proven true, it is reasonable to believe (1) and that it is rational. Rowe used the example of a fawn burning to death in a forest fire. Though we cannot prove that the fawn died for no reason, we can rationally believe it.7.What is the "GE Moore shift"?Moore takes the premises of his opponent's arguments and notes that they inly things that could not be true. He then destructs their whole argument from the incorrectness of one point.O3 God =Omniscient, Omnipotent, OmnibenevolentOther More Contested Characteristics of God•Necessary Existence •Personal •Spirit •Immutable (Without Change) •Impassable (Without the passions) •Eternal (Timeless or Everlasting)Four Types of Arguments For God's Existenceontological cosmological teleological argument from moralityWhat are the 2 main cosmological arguments?Thomas Aquinas; KalaamWhat is the main point of the cosmological argument?the first cause of the universeWhat is the main point of the teleological argument?the designer of the universeWhat is the main point of the argument from evil?How could an O3 God allow evil in the world?What is the meaning of "philosophy?"the love of wisdom6. Why do you think this argument is referred to an "evidential" argument from evil, as opposed to a "logical" problem of evil????