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Humans and other humanlike creatures that walk upright.


A person who moves from place to place.

Neolithic Revolution

The shift from hunting of animals and gathering of food to the keeping of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis around 8,000 B.C.

Systematic Agriculture

The keeping of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis.


Adaption for human use.


A complex culture in which large numbers of people share a number of common elements such as social structure, religion, and art.


A city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside.


A large political unit or state, usually under a single leader, that controls many peoples or territories


Dominated by men


A system of writing with wedge-shaped symbols, invented by the sumerians around 3000 B.C.


A powerful family or group of rulers that maintains its position or power for some time.


A system of writing using symbols or pictures.


Monotheistic religion developed among the Israelites.


Belief in one god.

Caste System

A set of rigid social categories that determined not only a
person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society.


The major Indian Muhammad and his followers to Madinah in 622, which became year 1 of the official calender of Isam.


Belief in the rebirth of souls


In the sixth century B.C., a new doctrine appeared in the nothern India and soon became a rival of Hinduhism.

Mandat of Heaven

Claim by Chinese kings of the Zhou dynasty that authority from the heaven to rule and to keep order in the universe.


''Way,'' the key to proper behavior under Confucianism.

Filial Piety

The duty of family members to subordinate their needs and
desires to those of the male head of the family, a concept important in Confucianism.


The system of political and ethical ideas formulated by the Chinese philosopher Confucius toward the end of the Zhou dynasty; it was intended to help restore order to a society that was in a state of confusion.

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