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Chemical Change (Reaction)
The process by which chemical bonds within a molecules of the products are broken, rearranged, and reformed to create the products.
Example of Chemical Change
Examples are: burning wood, mixing baking soda and vinegar, electrolysis, caramelizing sugar
Reactant
The chemical substance(s) that are present at the start of a chemical reaction.
Product
The new chemical substance(s) that result from a chemical reaction.
Electrolysis
Using electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen gas. Energy is stored.
Chemical Reaction Indicators
These are change to a physical property (color, texture, odor) that give us an observable clue that a chemical change has occured
Examples of Indicators
Examples are: temperature change, light released, color change, new smell or taste, OR formation of a precipitate or gas.
Precipitate
A solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction.
Physical Change
A process that causes the appearance or form to change, but does not change the type of molecules.
Examples of Physical Change
Examples are: changing state of matter, ripping, mixing salt and sugar, dissolving sugar, cutting hair
Chemical Equation
A mathematical model to describe the reactants and products of a chemical reaction using chemical formulas and other symbols instead of words.
Example of Chemical Equation
Example is: 2H2+O2->2H2O
Bonds Breakings
The bonds holding together the atoms in a molecule break. The atoms separate from each other and create new substances. This takes/absorbs energy.
Bonds Formings
Atoms or molecules create new bonds that hold them together. This creates a new molecule. This gives off/releases energy.
Balanced Equation
Chemical equation with the same number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation; mass is conserved.
Chemical Formula
A combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance
Examples of a Chemical Formula
Examples are: H2O, NaCl
Chemical Symbol
A one or two letter representation of an element
Examples of a Chemical Symbol
Examples are: H, C, Fe, O, Cl
Chemical Property
A characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into different substances
Examples of Chemical Properties
Examples are: reactive, flammable, corrosive, rusting (and all of the non-versions)
Physical Property
A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance
Examples of Physical Properties
Examples are: color, density, texture, odor, mass, volume
Exothermic Reaction
A chemical reaction in which energy is released to the surroundings as thermal energy (the temperature increases)
Endothermic Reaction
A reaction in which energy is absorbed and stored as chemical potential energy (the temperature decreases)
Thermal Energy
The total energy of motion in the particles of a substance
Stored Chemical Energy
Energy in chemical bonds. Example- your body stores chemical energy from the food you eat.
Conservation of Mass
A physical law stating that the total amount of mass remains constant. Also stated as: mass can be neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction—only rearranged.
Conservation of Energy
A physical law stating that the total amount of energy remains constant. Also stated as: energy can be neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction—only released or absorbed.
Phenomena
Observable facts; subjects of scientific investigation
Scientific Model
A representation of an object or event that can be studied to understand the real object or event
Independent Variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable we know prior to the investigation.
Dependent Variable
This is what we record in the data table; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of another variable.
Controls
Constraints that the experimenter places on the experiment to ensure that each trial has the exact same conditions
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