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Chemical Change (Reaction)
The process by which chemical bonds within a molecules of the products are broken, rearranged, and reformed to create the products.
Example of Chemical Change
Examples are: burning wood, mixing baking soda and vinegar, electrolysis, caramelizing sugar
The chemical substance(s) that are present at the start of a chemical reaction.
The new chemical substance(s) that result from a chemical reaction.
Using electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen gas. Energy is stored.
Chemical Reaction Indicators
These are change to a physical property (color, texture, odor) that give us an observable clue that a chemical change has occured
Examples of Indicators
Examples are: temperature change, light released, color change, new smell or taste, OR formation of a precipitate or gas.
A solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction.
A process that causes the appearance or form to change, but does not change the type of molecules.
Examples of Physical Change
Examples are: changing state of matter, ripping, mixing salt and sugar, dissolving sugar, cutting hair
A mathematical model to describe the reactants and products of a chemical reaction using chemical formulas and other symbols instead of words.
Example of Chemical Equation
Example is: 2H2+O2->2H2O
The bonds holding together the atoms in a molecule break. The atoms separate from each other and create new substances. This takes/absorbs energy.
Atoms or molecules create new bonds that hold them together. This creates a new molecule. This gives off/releases energy.
Chemical equation with the same number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation; mass is conserved.
A combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance
Examples of a Chemical Formula
Examples are: H2O, NaCl
A one or two letter representation of an element
Examples of a Chemical Symbol
Examples are: H, C, Fe, O, Cl
A characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into different substances
Examples of Chemical Properties
Examples are: reactive, flammable, corrosive, rusting (and all of the non-versions)
A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance
Examples of Physical Properties
Examples are: color, density, texture, odor, mass, volume
A chemical reaction in which energy is released to the surroundings as thermal energy (the temperature increases)
A reaction in which energy is absorbed and stored as chemical potential energy (the temperature decreases)
The total energy of motion in the particles of a substance
Stored Chemical Energy
Energy in chemical bonds. Example- your body stores chemical energy from the food you eat.
Conservation of Mass
A physical law stating that the total amount of mass remains constant. Also stated as: mass can be neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction—only rearranged.
Conservation of Energy
A physical law stating that the total amount of energy remains constant. Also stated as: energy can be neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction—only released or absorbed.
Observable facts; subjects of scientific investigation
A representation of an object or event that can be studied to understand the real object or event
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable we know prior to the investigation.
This is what we record in the data table; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of another variable.
Constraints that the experimenter places on the experiment to ensure that each trial has the exact same conditions
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