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AP bio Chapter 10 vocab
Terms in this set (49)
Bacterial viruses (phages for short)
Concluded that phages injects its DNA into the host cell, leaving all its protein outside; also demonstrates that it's the injected DNA molecules that cause cells to produce additional phage DNA and proteins. mostly convinced scientists that DNA is the hereditary material
Chemical units (monomers) that make up polymers which make up nucleic acid in DNA and RNA
A polymer; long chains of nucleic acid that make up DNA or RNA
A repeating pattern of sugar and phosphate made up of joined nucleotides
Thymine and cytosine
Single ring structures called pyrimidines. Nitrogenous bases
Adenine and guanine
Larger, double rind structures called purines. Nitrogenous bases
Term that describes the 2 polynucleotide strands that make up DNA
A goes w/ T, and G pairs w/ C. Dictated the side by side combos of nitrogenous bases, but places no restrictions on the sequence of nucleotides along the length of a DNA strand
Watson and Crick's DNA model where half of the parental molecule of maintained(conserved) in each daughter molecule
Enzymes that link DNA nucleotides to a heroine daughter strand. Add nucleotides only to the 3' end of the strand and not the 5' end (so a daughter DNA strand can only grow in the 5' to 3' direction)
A enzyme that links the pieces of the new synthesized daughter strand into a single DNA strand during DNA replication
The first stage in protein synthesis. It's the transfer of genetic info from DNA to RNA
The second stage of protein synthesis. It's the transfer of info in the RNA to a protein.
What the flow of info from gene to protein is based on. Genetic instructions for the amino acid sequence or a polypeptide chain is written in DNA and RNA as a series of 3 base words called codons
A set of rules giving the correspondence between codons in RNA and amino acids in proteins
A transcription enzyme that links together RNA nucleotides
A nucleotide sequence that's the "start transcribing" signal. It's the specific binding site for RNA polymerase and determines which of the 2 DNA strands are used as a template in transcription
In the third phase of transcription, the terminator is a sequence of bases in the DNA template that signals the end of the gene, causing the polymerase molecule to detach front the RNA molecule and the gene
The kind of RNA that encodes amino acid sequences bc it conveys genetic info from DNA to the translation machinery in the cell. mRNA is transcribed from DNA, and the message in the mRNA is translated into polypeptides.
internal noncoding regions that are in most plant and animal genes.
The parts of a gene that are expressed as amino acids
Cutting and pasting process where, before RNA leaves the nucleus, the introns are removed and the exons are joined to produce an mRNA molecule with a continuous coding sequence. Mostly catalyzed by a complex of proteins and small RNA molecules, but sometimes catalyze itself(acts as an enzyme and removes its own introns)
a special type of RNA; a molecular interpreter to convert codons of nucleic acids to the one letter, amino acids words of proteins. They must 1. Pick up the appropriate amino acid and 2. Recognize the appropriate codons in the mRNA
A special triplet of bases on one end of the folded tRNA molecule that's complementary to a codon triplet on mRNA , which it recognizes a particular codon on mRNA by using base pairing rules
A type of RNA on a ribosome Subunit
A specific codon that the special initiator tRNA binds to during the initiation phase of translation.
One of the two tRNA binding sites on the ribosome; whee the initiator tRNA fits into. It holds the growing polypeptide.
The other tRNA binding site; vacant and ready for the next amino-acid bearing tRNA.
UAA, UAG, and UGA. Elongation continues until a stop codon reached the ribosome's A site; these do not code for amino acids but instead act as signals to stop translation, thus the "termination" stage of translation.
Any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Can involve large regions of a chromosome or just a single nucleotide pair. Mutations within the gene can be base substitutions and base insertions/deletions
Triplet grouping of the codon message during translation. Adding or subtracting nucleotides may alter it.
The production of mutations. Could be caused by errors during DNA replication or by a mutagen
A physical or chemical agent that can cause a mutation
A protein coat that encloses the nucleic acid of an infectious particle
A reproductive cycle of phages that results in the lysis(breaking open) of the host cell & the release of the viruses produced inside the cell.
An alternate cycle to produce phages. Viral DNA replication occurs w/o destroying the host cell.
In the lysogenic cycle when the DNA is inserted by recombination into the bacterial chromosome; once inserted, it's called a prophage, and most of its genes are inactive
Viruses that have appeared suddenly or have recently come to the attention of medical scientists
An enzyme that catalyzed reverse transcription -- the synthesis of DNA on an RNA template. HIV carries the molecules of it.
Is characterized by reverse transcriptase
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Human immunodeficiency virus. Infects and eventually kills types of white blood cells important in immunity
One of the ways a bacterial gene can move from one cell to another. Consists of the uptake of foreign DNA from the surrounding environment
Another way of moving bacterial genes. It's the transfer of bacterial genes by a phage, where a fragment of DNA belonging tot eh phage's previous host cell is accidentally packaged within the phage's coat instead of the phage DNA. When the phage infects a new bacterial cell, the DNA stored away from the former host cell is injected into the new host
Third way to move bacterial genes. Union/mating of bacteria cells and the DNA transfer between them. (Process on page 204)
A specific piece of DNA that carries genes for making sex pili and other things needed for conjugation. Also contains an origin of replication, where DNA replication can start.
A small, circular piece DNA molecule separate from the bacterial chromosome. An F factor can exist as a plasmid. every plasmid had an origin of replication; Replicates within the cell.
Plasmids of one class that pose serious problems for human medicine. Transferable R plasmids carry genes for enzymes that destroy antibiotics like penicillin. Bacteria containing R plasmids are resistant to antibiotics that would otherwise kill them.
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