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Computer Graphics
ECON 2250 - Ch. 2: Descriptive Statistics: Tabular & Graphical Displays
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Terms in this set (24)
categorical data
labels or names used to identify categories of like items
quantitative data
numerical values that indicate how much or how many
data visualization
a term used to describe the use of graphical displays to summarize and present information about a data set
frequency distribution
a tabular summary of data showing the number (frequency) of observations in each of several non-overlapping categories or classes; sum of frequencies always equals the number of observations
relative frequency (of a class)
equals the fraction or proportion of observations belonging to a class; is equal to the frequency of the class divided by the number of observations; sum of relative frequencies always equals 1.00
percent frequency (of a class)
relative frequency multiple by 100; sum of percentages always equals 100
relative frequency distribution
tabular summary of data showing the relative frequency for each class; a tabular summary of data showing the fraction or proportion of observations in each of several non-overlapping categories or classes
perfect frequency distribution
summarizes the percent frequency of the data for each class; a tabular summary of data showing the percentage of observations in each of several non-overlapping classes
bar chart
a graphical device for depicting categorical data that have been summarized in a frequency, relative frequency, or percent frequency distribution
pie chart
a graphical device for presenting data summaries based on subdivision of a circle into sectors that correspond to the relative frequency for each class
class midpoint
the value halfway between the lower and upper class limits
dot plot
a graphical device that summarizes data by the number of dots above each data value on the horizontal axis; shows the details of the data and is useful for comparing the distribution of the data for two or more variables
histogram
a graphical display of a frequency distribution, relative frequency distribution, or parent frequency distribution of quantitative data constructed by placing the class intervals on the horizontal axis and the frequencies, relative frequencies, or percent frequencies on the vertical axis; unlike a bar graph, contains no natural separation between the rectangles go adjacent classes; is just a bar chart with no separation between bars; useful in providing information about the shape, or form, of a distribution
cumulative frequency distribution
a tabular summary of quantitative data showing the number of data values that are less than or equal to the upper class limit of each class
cumulative relative frequency distribution
a tabular summary of quantitative data showing the fraction or proportion of data values that are less than or equal to the upper class limit of each class
cumulative percent frequency distribution
a tabular summary of quantitative data showing the percentage of data values that are less than or equal to the upper class limit of each class
stem-and-leaf display
a graphical display used to show simultaneously the rank order and shape of a distribution of data
crosstabulation
a tabular summary of data for two variables; the classes for one variable are represented by the rows, the classes for the other variable are represented by the columns; widely used to investigate the relationship between two variables
Simpson's paradox
conclusions drawn from two or more separate crosstabulations that can be reversed when the data are aggregated into a single crosstabulation; reversal of conclusions based on aggregated and unaggregated data, often because of hidden variables
scatter diagram
a graphical display of the relationship between two quantitative variables; one variable is shown on the horizontal axis and the other variable is shown on the vertical axis
trendline
a line that provides an approximation of the relationship between two variables
side-by-side bar chart
a graphical display for depicting multiple bar charts on the same display
stacked bar chart
a bar chart in which each bar is broken into rectangular segments of a different color showing the relative frequency of each class in a manner similar to a pie chart
data dashboard (digital dashboard)
a set of visual displays that organizes and presents information that is used to monitor the performance of a company or organization in a manner that is easy to read, understand, and interpret
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