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Terms in this set (1464)

Level 1 - Pre-conventional morality:At the pre-conventional level (most nine-year-olds and younger, some over nine), we don't have a personal code of morality
Stage 1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation. The child/individual is good in order to avoid being punished. If a person is punished, they must have done wrong.

• Stage 2. Individualism and Exchange. At this stage children recognize that there is not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities. Different individuals have different viewpoints.

Level 2 - Conventional morality: At the conventional level (most adolescents and adults), we begin to internalize the moral standards of valued adult role models.

Stage 3. Good Interpersonal Relationships. The child/individual is good in order to be seen as being a good person by others. Therefore, answers relate to the approval of others.

• Stage 4. Maintaining the Social Order. The child/individual becomes aware of the wider rules of society so judgments concern obeying the rules in order to uphold the law and to avoid guilt.

Level 3 - Post-conventional morality:Individual judgment is based on self-chosen principles, and moral reasoning is based on individual rights and justice.
• Stage 5. Social Contract and Individual Rights. The child/individual becomes aware that while rules/laws might exist for the good of the greatest number, there are times when they will work against the interest of particular individuals.

The issues are not always clear cut. For example, in Heinz's dilemma the protection of life is more important than breaking the law against stealing.

• Stage 6. Universal Principles. People at this stage have developed their own set of moral guidelines which may or may not fit the law. The principles apply to everyone.

E.g. human rights, justice and equality. The person will be prepared to act to defend these principles even if it means going against the rest of society in the process and having to pay the consequences of disapproval and or imprisonment. Kohlberg doubted few people reached this stage.


Active, motor development, need frequent bathroom breaks, developing large muscles, developing eye-hand coordination, may experience difficulty in focus eyes.

Grade 1-4
Tend to be more active, need to move about often, need frequent breaks, need rest periods, better large muscle control, may be farsighted, may be prone to accidents.

Grade 5-6
The beginning of noticeable differences in height between sexes, able to maintain focus for longer periods of time, less restless, more control of both fine and large muscles, the beginning signs of sexual masturbation.


Preoperational, short attention span, self-regulating patterns of language.

Grade 1-4
Move from preoperational to Concrete need a variety of activities, ready to learn.

Grade 5-6
Beginning to move to abstract thinking, still rely on hands-on learning to understand concept optimally.


Initiative versus guilt, frequent changes in friends, parallel play, enjoy sharing time, need explorations and investigations, developing skills of choice and independence.

Grade 1-4
Industry versus inferiority, more selective in choosing friends, prefers organized games, focus on rules, may argue frequently, enjoy talking, may tattletale.

Grade 5-6
Interested in peer groups, still in industry versus inferiority stages.


Preconventional, frequent but brief disagreements, awareness of sex roles, emotions readily shown, tends to be teacher pleasers, need firm limits with consistency.

Grade 1-4

Sensitive to criticism and rejection, eager to please, sensitive to others.

Grade 5-6
More sensitive to opinion of peer group, the beginning stage of infatuation, less reliance on parents.