Chp 11 ap world
Terms in this set (32)
What kind of food producing economy emerged in 4000 BCE where productive farming was difficult and what did they learn from that?
Alternative focused on raising of livestock. Ppls learned to use milk, blood, wool, hides, and meat of animals
In what regions did pastoralists/herders shape their society?
Took place in vast grasslands of Inner Eurasia and sub-Saharan Africa, in the Arabian and Saharan desert, in the subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere, and in the high plateau of Tibet
Why didnt pastoralism emerge in the Americas
absence of large animals that could be domesticated, had to adapt and shape societies according to diverse environments
In what ways did pastoral societies differ from their AG counterparts?
(population, family unit, social structure, status of women, most characteristic feature)
POPULATION- less productive economies & needed large grazing areas for stock. Supported small populations
FAMILY UNIT- small, widely scattered encampments of related kinfolk rather than in villages, towns, and cities.
SOCIAL STRUCTURE- organized themselves in kinship based groups/clans that claimed common ancestry. In some societies, clans ranked as noble or commoner
STATUS OF WOMEN- offered women higher status, fewer restrictions, and a greater role in public life.
MOST CHARACTERISTIC FEATURE- moblity
In what way were nomadic pastoralists connected to their AG neighbors and what did this stimulate?
Few nomads could live solely off of animal products, most sought access to foodstuffs, manufactured goods, and luxury items from AG neighbors. Stimulated creation of tribal confederations or nomadic states that could more effectively deal with AG societies on border.
Why was constructing large empires among pastoralists no easy task
they generally lacked wealth needed to buy professional armies and bureaucracies that everywhere sustained states/empires of AG civilization. Fierce independence of widely dispersed pastoral clans and tribes, as well as their internal rivalries, made an enduring political unity difficult to achieve.
what sustained tribal nomadic states
ability to extract wealth through raiding, trading, or extortion from ag civilizations such as china, persia, and byzantium.
What new technologies were adapted/ invented by pastoral societies?
innovations included complex horse harness, saddle with iron stirrups, small compound bow that could be fired from horseback, forms of armor, new kinds of swords.
Xiongnu impact on world history
Empire effected revolution in nomadic life transforming- more centralized and hierarchical political system in which pwr concentrated in divinely sanctioned ruler and differences between junior and senior clans became more prominent.
Created a model for later turkic and mongol empires
Arab impact on wrl hist
Arabs, berbers, turks, and mongols created the largest and most influential empires of the postclassical millennium.
Most dramatic arabian development was a reliable camel saddle that allowed nomadic bedouins to fight effectively from atop camel.
Turks impact on wrld hist
Turning point and new role in turkic history occurred when their conversion to islam between 10th and 14th centuries. Extended process represented major expansion of faith and launched turks into new role as 3rd major carriers of islam.
How did pastoral Masai and their settled Ag neighbors bind their ppl together and what did such a system provide for them
adolescent boys from variety of villages/lineages were initiated together in ritual that often included circumcision, an experience that produced profound bond between them. Ceremony created an 'age set' which then moved through series of 'age grades' or ranks, from warrior to elder, during their lives. Provided an alternative to state as a means of mobilizing young men for military purposes, for integrating outsiders into the community, and for establishing a larger social identity.
How could outsiders become Masai?
By obtaining a herd of cattle, by joining a Masai age set, by learning the language, or by giving a woman in marriage to a Masai man and receiving 'bride wealth' in cattle in return.
Why didnt the Mongols try to spread their faith as did the arabs
they bequeathed world no new religion or civilization. Never tried to spread own faith among subject ppls. At level of family life, religion centered on rituals invoking ancestors, which were performed around hearth. Little in their tradition to attract outsiders and mongols uninterested in religious imperialism.
What was Chinggis Khans mission
to unite mongol tribes into a confederation and construct an empire that expanded into china, long a source of great wealth for nomadic ppls.
Describe some ways of the Mongols military effectiveness and success
success lay in armies, who were better led, organized, and disciplined than their opponents. Discipline and loyalty to leaders characterized mongol military forces, and discipline reinforced by provision that should 1 or 2 members of unit desert in battle, all were subject to death penalty. Loyalty cemented by leaders willingness to fight with men. Incorporated huge #s of conquered ppl into army. Reputation of ruthless brutality and utter destructiveness. unskilled civilians served as human shields or human fill in moats. Psychological warfare, impressive ability to mobilize both human and material resources of their growing empire.
how did mongol rule change china
mongols united divided china, and moved their capital from karakorum in mongolia to a new capital city known as khanbalik. they ignored using the traditional civil service exam system and relied heavily on foreigners. Mongols kept authority positions to themselves. Few mongols learned chinese and mongol law discriminated against chinese people, they had the most sever punishments. Mongols forbade intermarriage and prohibited chinese scholars from learning mongol script. Mongol women never adopted foot binding and scandalized chinese by mixing freely w/ men at official gatherings and riding w/ their husbands to hunt. Mongols honored and supported merchants and artisans far more than confucian bureaucrats.
In what ways were the mongols changed by China
Took chinese title, yuan. Made use of chinese administrative practices and techniques of taxation and their postal system. Mongol Khans made use of traditional confucian ritual, supported the building of some daoist temples, and were particularly attracted to a Tibetian for of buddhism, which returned the favor with strong political support for the invaders.
How was mongol rule in persia different from that in china
heavy taxation pushed peasants of their land, while mongol herds of sheep and goats, and mongol neglect of fragile underground water channels did extensive damage to persian ag land. Mongols made extensive use of persian bureaucracy. Mongols who conquered persia converted in large #s to local muslim faith. A number of mongols turned to AG and married local ppl, so when their rule collapsed, they were assimilated into persian society.
How was the russian experience of mongol domination different from perisa or china.
Didnt occupy land, russian princes received appointment from khan and were required to send substantial tribute to mongol capital at sarai. Mongol impact uneven, absence of mongol rule meant mongols far less influenced by or assimilated within russian cultures. Russians more affected, princes found it useful to adopt the mongols weapons,diplomatic rituals, court practices, taxation system, and military draft.
In what ways did the mongol empire contribute to the globalization of the eurasian world
actively promoted international commerce, mongol trading circuit central element in even larger commercial network that linked much of afroeurasian wrld in 13th century. Also promoted diplomatic relationships, esp. between western europe and the mongols and between china and persia. spurred substantial exchange of ppls and cultures through its policy of forcibly transferring skilled craftsmen and educated ppl from their homeland to distant parts of the empire. Facilitated spread of religion through its religious tolerance and support of merchants. actively encouraged exchange of ideas and techniques.
beyond the devastation of a greatly decreased population, what were the longer term changes in european society and what were the larger consequences from the impact of the plague
longer term changes: laborer shortages provoked conflict between scarce wrkers who demanded higher wages/better conditions, and rich who resisted demands. Series of peasant revolts in 14th century reflected tension, undermined practice of serfdom. Laborer shortage fostered greater interest in tech innovations, and created more employment options for women. larger consequence was the demise of mongol empires network of trade in 14th and 15th centuries.
ppl of the mongolian steppe lands north of china who formed a large scale nomadic empire in the 3rd and 2nd centuries bce
great ruler of the xiongnu empire (ruled 210-174 bce) who created a centralized and hierarchical political system
turkic speakers from central asia, originally nomads, who spread westward into the near east and into india; they created a series of nomadic empires between 552-965 ce but had a more lasting impact on wrld hist when they became dominant in the islamic heartland and founded a series of states and empires there.
nomadic cattle keeping ppl of what is now kenya and tanzania
birth name of the mongol leader better known as chinggis khan
capital of the mongol empire in mongolia
mongol dynasty that ruled china from 1271-1368; created under khubilai khan, name means 'great beginnings'
grandson of chingiss khan who ruled china from 1271-1294
grandson of chinggis khan(1217-1265) who became the first il-khan (subordinate khan of persia)
kipxhak khanate/ golden horde
name given to russia by the mongols after they conquered it and incorporated it into the mongol empire in the mid 13th century, known to russians as the khanate of the golden horde.
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