Chapter 4 Social Studies Test
Terms in this set (92)
What was the goal of the 1st Continental Congress?
It was to state the colonists concerns.
What was the goal of the 2nd Continental Congress?
It was to prepare for war and hope for peace.
(Olive Branch Petition)
What role did Patrick Henry play in the war?
War was the only option, so he attempted to unify the colonies and have them join forces
What issues happened during the 2nd Continental Congress?
There was a debate over war; the Olive Branch Petition was sent
What did the Declaration of Rights state?
That colonists were entitled to life, liberty, and property. (List of 10 rights)
What was the first battle of the Revolution?
the Battles of Lexington & Concord ( British were searching for weapons and ammunition)
Who was Thomas Paine and what was the main idea of "Common Sense"?
He was the author of the article ''Common Sense"
The main idea of it was the Kings and Queens should not rule, the citizens should control the government
Who is the author of the Declaration of Independence?
What were the Loyalists beliefs?
The Loyalists wanted to remain under the King.
What were the Colonists beliefs?
The Colonists wanted to revolt against the King.
What does "E pluribus Unum" mean?
Out of many one
What was Taxation without Representation?
Begins with the stamp act, cannot tax citizens if they are not represented in government.
How was slavery approached in the Declaration of Independence?
Jefferson originally tried to end it with the Declaration. Southern delegates did not agree, the phrase was removed.
What did the British do for African Americans?
The British offered freedom to the African Americans if they fought in the British Army.
How did Marquis de Lafayette contribute to the war?
He brought trained French soldiers from France and supplied money and military skills.
Why did the Patriots fight a defensive war prior to Trenton?
They hoped the supplies would last longer.
How did Bernardo de Galvez contribute to the war?
His supplies in hopes would regain Florida back from Britain.
What was the winter at Valley Forge like? (1777-1778)
It was very cold, lacked protection & supplies. As a result many died of illness.
What were the setbacks for the Americans? (War of the West)
Patriots were unable to win over the Native Americans. Even though we knew the land, it did not help.
What allowed the Patriots to win at Yorktown?
Cornwallis put himself where he could be trapped, because he wanted to maintain communications with the British Navy. French Navy also helped by creating a blockade in the Chesapeake Bay.
What were the results of the Treaty of Paris?
US borders: Mississippi River in the West, Great Lakes in the North, Florida in the South.
Was Marquis de Lafayette a Patriot or Loyalist?
He was a Patriot.
Was Charles Cornwallis a Patriot or Loyalist?
He was a Loyalist.
Was John Burgoyne a Patriot or Loyalist?
He was a Loyalist.
Was William Prescott a Patriot or Loyalist?
He was a Patriot.
Was William Howe a Patriot or Loyalist?
He was a Loyalist.
Who won the Battle of Trenton?
What is the date of the Battle of Trenton?
Who won the Battle of Saratoga?
What is the date of the Battle of Saratoga?
Who won the Battle of Yorktown?
What is the date of the Battle of Yorktown?
Who won the Battle of Princeton?
Did all of the colonies participate in the 1st Continental Congress?
No, every colony except for Georgia.
What were the Declaration of Rights?
10 resolutions to be presented to King George III
What was the "shot heard 'round the world"?
It was the first shot of the Revolution. No one knows who shot it.
What did the Massachusetts militia become?
They became the Continental Army. George Washington as commander.
When did the delegates send the Olive Branch Petition?
July 5th, 1775
What was the first major battle of the Revolution?
the Battle of Bunker Hill
What happened on June 17th, 1775?
The Patriots were forced to retreat during the battle of Bunker Hill and it was considered a moral victory for the British.
What was "Common Sense"?
a 47 page pamphlet, written by Thomas Paine, published in January 1776.
What was approved on July 4th, 1776?
the Declaration of Independence
What did the Declaration not do?
It did not address the rights of women.
It did not recognize the rights of enslaved African Americans.
It did not address the rights of Native Americans to life, liberty, or property.
About how may soldiers served in the Continental Army?
More than 230,000
145,000 were enlisted in local militias
Who were the first to allow African Americans to join their army in return for freedom?
Why did the Patriots allow free African Americans to serve?
The British were suddenly gaining so many more people by allowing them to serve, so the Patriots did the same.
What did the women do?
They ran farms and businesses.
They helped by raising money for supplies or by making clothing.
Served as messengers, spies, and nurses.
Some dressed as men and fought.
What did some Patriots believe could be the 14th colony?
The American forces attacked where in Canada?
Quebec; but they failed and the hopes of taking Canada faded
How many of the battles in New York did the British win?
All of them except for Saratoga
When did the British fleet arrive in New York?
What happened to Washington's forces after a series of battles with the British?
They were pushed into New Jersey.
Where did Washington cross on Christmas night?
Who did the Patriots attack after they crossed the Delaware River?
They attacked the Hessians.
Who were the Hessians?
German troops hired by the British
Who won at the Battle of Princeton?
Why did the Battle of Saratoga take place?
The British were upset by the 2 defeats in NJ. (Trenton & Princeton)
Who planned to seize Hudson River Valley and cut off New England?
British general John Burgoyne
The British army was crushed by Patriot forces on October 17, 1777 under which general?
General Horatio Gates
Which battle was the turning point of the Revolution?
The battle of Saratoga.
What treaty was signed with France (King Louis XVII)?
Treaty of Alliance
Which two countries both lost land in America to the British?
France and Spain
Which three countries joined the Patriots after the battle of Saratoga?
Spain, France, and Holland
Who came from Prussia to help the Continental Army?
Baron Freidrich von Steuben
How did Baron Freidrich von Steuben help the Patriots?
He trained them at Valley Forge, PA
When did France officially join the Patriot forces?
When did Spain join the war?
Who was Bernardo de Galvez and what did he do for the Patriots?
He was the governor of Louisiana and he seized British posts.
What did the Continental Army have shortages on during the winter at Valley Forge?
Food, clothing, and shelter
Who was John Paul Jones?
He was commander of victorious Bonhomme Richard. This former British outlaw became an American naval hero.
Why did the Patriots face difficulty fighting the "war at sea"?
Their naval fleet was to small to fight against the British navy.
Who captured the British trading village of Kaskakia, Illinois in 1778?
George Rogers Clark
What did the British destroy in the south?
Crops, farm animals, and other property.
When did British take control of Savannah, GA?
When did the British take control of Charleston, SC?
Who attempted to drive the British out of Camden, SC?
The Patriots, but they did not succeed
What was Guerilla Warfare?
Hit and run attacks
What was Francis Marion's nickname?
What did Francis Marion do and what was the general time of day in which he did it?
Disrupted British communication and supply lines.
He only attacked at nighttime.
What land did British hold during the battle of Yorktown?
They held most of the south along with NYC and Philadelphia.
Who sold plans for West Point to the British?
He gave the plans to John Andre who was caught, put on trial, and hanged.
Where did Cornwallis move his troops?
Who ordered Lafayette to block Cornwallis' escape by land?
When did Cornwallis surrender to Washington?
October 19, 1781
What did the British do after the Treaty of Paris?
-They would remove troops off of American Soil
-Recognize the independence of the US
-Set new borders
~East of the Mississippi River, excluding FL, is the US
~West of the Mississippi River, along with FL, controlled by Spanish
~Britain controlled most of Canada
Which French general did Washington combine his troops with at Yorktown?
Comte de Rochambeau
What inspired the colonists to break apart from Britain?
How would the opinions of the delegates at the 2nd Continental Congress best be characterized?
They were far from unified but open to compromise.
Who were the 5 members of the committee that created the Declaration of Independence?
Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, John Adams, Robert Livingston
Why was Lafayette interested in the American Revolution?
He believed in the ideas that inspired the revolution.
Common Sense led many colonial leaders to do what?
Challenge British authority, join the war
Which men negotiated the Treaty of Paris?
Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, John Jay