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Study Guide Chapter 20 AP Euro
Terms in this set (50)
The Industrial Revolution had its beginnings in
e. Great Britain.
Britain's emergence as the first industrial power was aided by all of the following except
d. Parliament's heavy and controlling involvement in private enterprise.
The Industrial Revolution in Britain was largely inspired by
c. entrepreneurs who sought and accepted the new profitable manufacturing methods.
The infrastructure advantages in Britain promoting rapid industrialization included all of the following except
d. internal customs posts.
The spinning jenny was invented by
James Hargreaves' (1768)
The first step toward the Industrial Revolution in Britain occurred within its
a. cotton textile industry.
Britain's cotton industry in the late 18th Century
was responsible for the creation of the first modern factories
Britain's cotton industry in the late eighteenth century
e. was responsible for the creation of the first modern factories.
Which one of the following allowed steam engines to be located away from rivers?
c. They ran on coal.
the invention of the steam engine in Britain was
initially triggered by the need for more efficient
pumps to eliminate water seepage from deep mines
(Thomas Newcomen's steam pump )
the development of the steam engine during the
Industrial Revolution made Britain's cotton goods the
cheapest and most popular in the world. By 1850, seven-eighths of the total power available to the British cotton industry was furnished by steam The success of the steam engine in the Industrial Revolution made Britain dependent upon coal which it had in large quantities
Which of the following inventions proved vital to the industrialization of British cotton manufacturing?
e. all of the above
and Samuel Crompton's spinning mule (1790)
James Watt was vital to the Industrial Revolution for his invention of
c. a rotary engine that could spin and weave cotton.
Textile workers in which of the following countries, formerly dependent on such work, could no longer compete with British cotton produced with the aid of steam engines?
Side note: compared to Britain, American industrialization was a capital-intensive endeavor because there was a far larger pool of unskilled laborers in the US
The success of the steam engine in the Industrial Revolution made Britain dependent upon
Britain dependent upon coal which it had in large quantities
The Englishman Henry Cort was responsible for the process in iron smelting known as
in which coke was used to burn away impurities in pig iron to produce an iron of high quality
In 1804, Richard Trevithick pioneered
c. the first steam-powered locomotive on an industrial rail line.
on an industrial rail-line in south Wales
The development of the railroads in the Industrial Revolution was important in
a. increasing British supremacy in civil and mechanical engineering.
first public railway lines, is attributed to George Stephenson in 1830
The new set of values established by factory owners during the Industrial Revolution
d. relegated the worker to a life of harsh discipline and the rigors of competitive wage labor.
A frequent method employed to make the many very young boys and girls working in new British industries obey the owner's factory discipline was
e. repeated beatings.
The rise of the industrial factory system deeply affected the lives and status of workers who now
b. no longer owned the means of economic production and could only sell their labor for a wage.
Britain's Great Exhibition of 1851 was held
c. in the newly built Crystal Palace. Kensington in London in the Crystal Palace which was an enormous structure made entirely of glass and iron
One of the chief reasons why Europe initially lagged behind England in industrialization was a lack of
b. roads and means of transportation.
To keep their industrial monopoly, Britain attempted to
b. prohibit industrial artisans from going abroad.
also, Subsidized inventors, provide incentives to factory owners, improved transportation network.
Industrialization began on the continent first in
b. Belgium, France and Germany.
Continental industrialization differed from Great Britain's in that the continent was dependent on joint-stock investment banks like the Credit Mobilier (France), Darmstadt Bank (Germany), and the Kreditanstalt (Austria)
One of the differences between British and Continental industrialization was that
c. government played a larger role in Continental industrialization.
Friedrich List showed how Germany could catch up with British industry by
c. protecting infant industries with high tariffs.
Which one of the following men established the first textile factory using water-powered spinning machines in Rhode Island in 1790?
a. Samuel Slater
By 1850, all of the following countries were close to Britain in industrial output except
Who wrote Life on the Mississippi?
d. Mark Twain.
The first Continental nations to completely establish a comprehensive railroad system were
b. Belgium and Germany.
In the United States, right after the Civil War what began to replace steam boats as a viable mode of transportation on may routes?
due to the physical size of the US, a good transportation system was essential to the industrialization process by 1860, there was 27,000 miles of railroad track in the US
In the early nineteenth century, much of India fell under the control of
d. the british east india company
By 1860 what percent of the population in cities held 70 to 80 percent of the wealth in America?
a. 10 percent
Compared to Britain, American industrialization was a capital-intensive endeavor because
d. there was a larger pool of unskilled laborers in the U.S.
The so-called American System was
b. the use of interchangeable parts in manufacturing.
By 1850, the European population
a. could not be closely approximated as government statistics were not yet kept.
e. was over 265 million.
population increases had already begun in the 18th Century, but they became dramatic in the 19th Century from 1750 to 1850, the population in Europe rose from 140 million to 266 million
The European population explosion of the nineteenth century
b. was largely attributable to the disappearance of famine from western Europe.
(Irish Potato Famine was a big exception)
The only European country with a declining population in the nineteenth century was
Urbanization in the first half of the nineteenth century
c. was a phenomenon directly tied to industrialization.
Which of the following statements best applies to urban life in the early nineteenth century?
d. Filthy sanitary conditions were exacerbated by the city authorities' slow response to take responsibility for public health.
Demographic changes that resulted from industrialization saw
b. the new middle class move to the suburbs of cities to escape the urban poor.
c. advocated modern sanitary reforms that resulted in Britain's first Public Health Act.
one of the best of the new breed of urban reformers became obsessed with eliminating the poverty and squalor in metropolitan areas
was Secretary of the Poor Law Commission in Great Britain
Which nineteenth century novelist described the coal towns as a place "where the struggling vegetation sickened and sank under the hot breath of kiln and furnace"?
d. charles dickens
Members of the new industrial entrepreneurial class in the early nineteenth century
c. were usually resourceful individuals with diverse social backgrounds.
The new social class of industrial workers in the early industrial revolution.
b. worked under dangerous conditions for long hours.
at the mercy of profit-maximizing bosses
A primary reason for the use of children as a source of labor in the Industrial Revolution was
b. low-paid children could more easily move around large industrial equipment.
Women who worked in the early factories of the Industrial Revolution
d. did not result in a significant transformation in female working patterns.
The English Poor Law Act of 1834
a. established workhouses where jobless poor people were forced to live.
The Industrial Revolution's effect on the standard of living
e. all of the above
The Chartists in England wanted to
b. make Parliament more democratic.
b. destroyed industrial machines that destroyed their livelihood.
Efforts at industrial reform in the 1830's and 1840's in Great Britain achieved all of the following except the
a. establishment of a national system of trade unions by 1847.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
CH 21 AP EURO (fixed)
CH 22 AP EURO (fixed)
AP European History Chapter 12
AP Euro Chapter 25 (fixed)
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