Students of Civics Unit 10: Foreign Policy

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Terms in this set (...)

Foreign Policy
the plans and actions a nation takes in every aspect of its relationships with other countries—diplomatic, military, commercial, etc.
Goals of Foreign Policy
1. National Security
2. Economic Prosperity
3. World Peace
4. Spreading of Democracies
5. Humanitarian Aid
National Security
Protecting a nation's borders and territory against invasion or attack from a foreign power or terrorist group
Economic Prosperity
Keeps markets for American goods open
Acquiring necessary resources
Generally, the US pushes for Free Trade (no restrictions)
Humanitarian Aid
Concerned with helping people

US responds by offering food, medical supplies, and technical assistance
Isolationism
Policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs (minding our business & ignoring everything outside the US)
Monroe Doctrine
Enacted in 1823 by James Monroe (5th President); warned European nations to stay out of Latin America or risk war
Open Door Policy
American statement bu John Hay that the government did not want colonies in China, but favored free trade there.
Roosevelt Corollary
Theodore Roosevelt's agenda to meddle in Latin America

Justified building the Panama Canal (started civil war between Panama & Colombia) and occupying Cuba
Dollar Diplomacy
President Taft's policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad
Good Neighbor Policy
President Franklin Roosevelt's policy intended to strengthen friendly relations with Latin America.
Neutrality
1920s-1941: US officially Neutral; takes on Isolationist policy
Cold War
1947-1991; US tries to stop spread of Communism in Latin America, Asia, and Europe
Truman Doctrine
1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.
Eisenhower Doctrine
Policy of the US that it would defend the Middle East against attack by any Communist country.
Detente
French word meaning an easing of tensions between the world's superpowers during the Cold War
End of the Cold War
1991: Cold War Ends as Soviet Union goes bankrupt trying to match US military spending
War on Terrorism
Afghanistan (2001-Present) US adopts a preemption policy after terrorists attack NYC and Washington, D.C.
Treaty
A formal agreement between two or more nations
Secretary of State
The head of the U.S. Department of State; a member of the President's Cabinet
Secretary of Defense
Supervises the military activities of the US,
National Security Advisor
sits on National Security Council (NSC); advises President
Central Intelligence Agency
established in 1947 for gathering information and keeping America safe abroad

Officially not allowed to operate on US soil
State Department
To keep the President informed on international issues
To maintain diplomatic relations with foreign governments
To negotiate treaties with foreign gov'ts
To protect the interests of Americans who are traveling or conducting business abroad
Diplomatic Immunity
When an ambassador is not subject to the laws of the state to which they are accredited.
Embassy
the official residence and office of the ambassador and his/her staff
Defense Department
Established in 1947 to oversee US military; headquartered at the Pentagon (Arlington, Virginia)

Includes: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, and Coast Guard

More than 700,000 civilian employees and more than 1 million military personnel
Joint Chiefs of Staff
top-ranking military officials; advise President on national security matters
Diplomacy
the act of dealing with other nations, usually through negotiation and discussion.
Foreign Aid
Military Aid: send troops to protect or defend another country or a country donates or sells military equipment to an ally.

Economic Aid: nations donate or loan money to allies to boost their economic development
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Established during the Cold War to protect America's European allies from Soviet attack or invasion for fear of retaliation

Post-Cold War: functioned as interventionist peacekeeping organization

Today: NATO functions in War on Terror
United Nations
Established in 1945 as successor to League of Nations primarily as a peacekeeping organization.
UN Security Council
made up of 15 member nations with five permanent members (China, Russia, US, France, and the United Kingdom)
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Established in 1960

Members Include: Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Gabon, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia (the de facto leader), United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela.

Purpose: to set international oil prices
European Union
Established in 1973

Political-economic union of 28 European nations

Purpose: promotes economic growth for member states by sharing a currency (euro)

July 2016: Great Britain voted to leave European Union (Brexit)
International Monetary Fund
The IMF, an international institution set up to maintain order in the international monetary system
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada.

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