By ________________ people, the police take away what americans value most highly: their freedom and their liberty
How do we measure crime?
1) Uniform crime reports (UCR) crime index, crime index offenses cleared, persons arrested, law enforcement personnel 2) national crime victimization survey
crime and punishment
1) elements of the crime must be proven 2) without a law, there is no crime 3) malum in se 4) malum prohibitum 5) insanity defense 6) plea bargain
THe billof rights and the 14th amendment
1) constitution is a continuing, dynamic document 2) the law is always changing 3) U.S. criminal justice system is based on the bill of rights 4) Bill of rights extended to the states 5) due process clause
arrest is restricted by the 5th amendment probable cause is more than reasonable suspicion (necessary for police officers to conduct stop and frisks)
Reasonable and deadly force in making arrests
1) reasonable force: amount of force necessary to overcome resistance 2) escalation of force 3) rodney King incident (1991) 4) Scott v. Harris (2007) does not violate the 4th amendment
Any act that the government has declared to be contrary to the public good, that is declared by statue to be a crime, and that is prosecuted in a criminal proceeding
Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
yearly collection of aggregate crime statistics prepared by the FBi based upon citizens reports of crimes to the police
National Crime victimization survey (NCVS)
National institute of Justice survey of a random sample of U.S. houselholds, asking them if a crime was committed against anyone in the household during the prior 6 months
malum in se
An act that is wrong in itself -that is illegal in its very nature because it violates the natural, moral or public principles of a civilized society.
process by which actions of the police in areas such as arrests, search and seizure and custodial interrogations are reviewed by the court system to ensure their constitutionality
an interpretation of the U.S. constitution by the U.S. Supreme court that holds that evidence seized in violation of the U.S. Constitution cannot be used in court against a defendant
silver platter doctrine
legal tactic that allowed federal prosecutors to use evidence obtained by state police officers through unreasonable searches and seizures
The initial taking into custody of aperson by law enforcement authorities to answer for a criminal offense or violation of a code or ordinance
evidence that may lead a reasonable person to believe that a crime has been committted and that a certain person committed it.
The standard of proof that is necessary for police officers to conduct stops and frisks
search and seizure
legal concept relating to the search for and confiscation of evidence by the police
a writen order based on probable cause and signed by a judge, authorizing police to sèarch a specific person, place, or property to obtain evidence
One of the major exceptions to the warrant requirement of the 4th amendment. exigency may be defined as emergency.
stop and frisk
The detaining of a person by law enforcement officers for the purpose of investigation, accompained by a superficial examination of the persons body surface or clothing to discover weapons, contraband, or other objects relating to criminal activity
unplanned questioning of an individual who has aroused the suspicions of an officer
Based on the U.S. Supreme court decision in Terry v. Ohio, the standard for allowing police officers to perform a stop and frisk (pat down) of a suspect.
plain view evidence
Evidence seized by police without a warrant who have the right to be in a positionto observe it
based on the landmark 1925 U.S. Supreme Court Case Carroll v. U.S. the legal doctrine that automobiles have less 4th amendment protection than other places
the questioning of a person in police custody regarding his or her participation in a crime
The pattern of brutality and violence used by the police to obtain confessions by suspects
Miranda Rule (miranda warnings)
Rule established by the U.S.Supreme court in the landmark case Miranda v. U.S. (1966) that requires the police to advise suspects confrontttting custodial interrogation of their constitutional rights
A writ requiring that an arrested person be brought before a court to determine whether he or she has been legally detained
police identification procedure involving the placing of a suspect with a group of other people of similar physical characteristics so that a witness or victim of a crime can have the opportunity to identify the perpetrator of the crime
Police identification pprocess involving bringing a suspect back to the scene of the crime or another place where the suspect can be seen a dn possibly identified by a victim or witness of a crme
police identification procedure similar to a lineup, except that photos of the suspect (who is not in custody) and others are shown to a witness or victim of a crime
What are the 14 exceptions to the warrant requirement?
1) incident to lawful arrest 2) field interrogations (stop and frisk) 3) terry stop 4) exigent circumstances 5) consent searches 6) plain view 7) abandoned property 8) inventory 9) open fields 10) the automobile exception 11) border searches 12) good faith 13) suspicionless search of a parolee 14) searches by private persons
What is the path to miranda
1) end of the 3rd degree 2) remaining silent 3) the prompt arraignment rule 4) entry of lawyers into the station house
The erosion of miranda
1) large # of cases brought to the supreme court to challenge and question miranda 2) habeas corpus
The Dickerson ruling and beyond
Dickerson v. U.S. (2000) Supreme court ruled that miranda was a constitutional decision * cannot be overruled by congress 2) Miranda rule in Texas v. Cobb (2001) offense specific 3) 2-tier interrorgation technique, also known as beachheading
How many major methods are used to measure crime in the United states?
2. UCR-uniform crime report and NCVS-national crime victimization survey
The U.S. Constitution is a continuing, dynamic __________________ constantly being reviewed by the U.S. Supreme court
Most of the arrests made by the average police officer do not involve a _______________
warrant. because crimes an officer becomes aware of on the street necessitate immediate action and do not allow the officer the time necesary to go to court to obtain a warrant.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, freedom of speech or of the press, or the right of people peaceably to assemble
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures
No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime unless on apresentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising the land or naval forces or in the militia , when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb, nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness, against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law,nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation
right to a speedy and public trial, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation, to be confronted with the witnesses against him, to have assistance of counsel for his defense
excessive bail shall not be required,nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted
nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law nor deny any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws
Weeks v. U.S. influenced police by regulating what?
how they should conduct their searches and seizures
Brown v. Mississippi, the court began to affect the police by ruling what?
That certain methods of police interrogation are unconstitutional
most Supreme court cases regarding crimninal justce try to strike a ____________ between the rights of the individual and the rights of society
Mapp v. Ohio and Miranda v. Arizona are known as ____________________ cases and can bring about changes in police procedures
The major method used by the Supreme court to ensure that the police do not violate peoples constitutional rights is the _________________
exclusionary rule. which is an interpretation of the 14th amendment by the Supreme Court that holds that evidence seized in violation of the us constitution can't be used in court against a defendant
most of the arrests made by the police are based on the ______________ ________________ standard, which can be defined as evidence that may lead a reasonable person to believe that a crime has been committed and that a certain person committed it
The U.S. supreme court has recognized 2 constitutional sources of the right to counsel during interrogation:
1) The court's interpretation in Miranda v. Arizona of the 5th amendment right against self-incrimination and the 2) 6th amendment
In Dickerson v. U.S. 2000, the Supreme court ruled that Miranda is a constitutional decision that cannot be overruled by an act of _____________________