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Innate Mechanism

First line of defense & non specific

Adaptive Mechanism

Second line of defense & highly specific with memory

3 lineages of progenitor stem cells

Erythoid, Myeloid, Lymphoid

Erythoid Lineage

erythocytes & megakaryocytes

Myeloid lineage

polymorphonucleur leukocytes, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, PMN'S, mast cells

Polymorphonucleur leukocytes

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils. Lobed shaped nuclei. Found in myeloid lineage


polymorphonucleur leukocyte.principal cell of innate immunity


polymorphonucleur leukocyte. principal defender in parasites


polymorphonucleur leukocyte. functions similarly to eosinophils and mast cells


leukocytes with bean shaped nuclei. circulate in blood. precursors of macrophages


derived from monocytes. found in tissue. innate and adaptive immunity

dendritic cells

defends against viruses. Captures and presents antigens to T lymphocytes

mast cells

located in mucous membrane and connective tissue throughout body. Major effector cell in allergy.

Lymphoid Lineage

large and small lymphocytes

Large lymphocytes

Natural Killer cells. (CD16, 56) Innate immunity to viruses. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

Small lymphocytes

B cells (CD 19) and T cells (CD3, CD4, or CD8) Adaptive immunity.


Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Attack cell first with an antibody, then use natural killer cell to kill it.

Does Summer have more viral or bacterial infections?


lymphocytes originate, develop, and mature in

bone marrow

Primary lymphoid tissues and organs

Development and maturation of lymphocytes. Bone marrow are B cells and thymus gland are T cells

Secondary tissues and organs

Mature lymphocytes travel to find pathogens. Spleen, adnoids, tonsils, appendix, lymph nodes, peyer's patches, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.

Lymphatic System

Lymph, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other secondary lymphatic tissues and organs


Fluid and cells in lymphatic vessels

lymphatic vessesl

collect and return interstitial fluid to blood, transport immune cells throughout body, and transport lipid form intestine to blood

lymph nodes

kidney shaped organs at intervals along lymphatic vessels

Lymphocytes and the lymph nodes

Naive lymphocytes are mature but haven't found antigen. They Circulate between blood, lymph and secondary lymph nodes. Lymphatic vessels pick up pathogens from infected tissue sites and arrive at the closest lymph node. T and B cells are at specific regions of nodes. Shape and size of nodes change in response to activation of lymphocytes.

Lymphocytes and the spleen

spleen is a lymphoid organ. It removes damaged or old erythrocytes and activates lymphocytes from blood borne pathogens. Red pulp removes erythrocytes and white pulp stimulates secondary lymphoid tissue.

2 primary portals of entry for pathogens

respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract

What are the 2 Secondary lymphoid tissues?

Bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and Gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) which are tonsils, adenoids, appendix, peyer's patches.

The innate immune response is initiated by what?

phagocytes, natural killer cells, and soluble proteins llike cytokines


Cells specialized in phagocytosis. Macrophages are in tissues and recruit neutrophils. Neutrophils enter infected tissues in large numbers. They recognize common molecules of BACTERIAL cell surface using a few surface receptors.

Inflammatory response enhances phagocytosis through what?

acute phase proteins

3 acute phase proteins and their functions

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) binds to bacterial surface with particular spatial arrangement of mannose or fucose. C-reactive protein binds to phosphorylcholine on bacterial surface. Complement is a set of proteins which bind to bacterial surface

Inflammatory Response

accumulation of fluid and cells at infection site. Swelling, redness, heat and pain.

The adaptive immune response

makes millions of different B and T cells for specific antibody-mediated and cell-mediated immunity

Antibody-Mediated Immunity (AMI)

involves B lymphocytes, plasma cells and antibodies. AKA humoral immunity

Cell-Mediated Immunity (CMI)

Involves T lymphocytes, antigen presenting cells and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. AKA cellular immunity.

Antibody-mediated Immunity is directed against

extracellular microorganisms and toxins.

B-lymphocytes (B cells) in AMI

differentiate into plasma cells which produce antibodies. They function as antigen-presenting cells.

Cell-mediated immunity is directed against

intracellular microorganisms. Both non-phagocytic cells and phagocytic cells

T-lymphocytes (T cells) in CMI

differentiate into effector cells following antigen presentation by antigen presenting cells

Functional types of T cells (3)

Helper (CD4 T cells) which are TH1 and TH2 cells. Cytotoxic (CD8 T cells). Regulatory (CD4 and CD8 Tregs)


molecule which stimulates production of and binds specifically to an antibody

Difference between antigen and immunogen

immunogens can stimulate an adaptive immune response while antigens can't. Best immunogens have a MW > 10,000

What are 3 potential antigens/immunogens

Carbohydrates, nucleic acids and lipids

Hapten. One example

Contemporary Immunology: A small antigen unable to elicit immune response but when combined with a larger carrier molecule, together they form an adaptive immune response. Example is Penicillin G with Albumin.


glycoproteins. cane exist as monomers, dimers, or pentamers of basic structure. Basic structure has 4 polypeptide chains. 2 identical light and 2 identical heavy chains.

Antibodies are secreted form of

IG made by plasma cells


antigen binding molecules of B cells.

Five classes of immunoglobulin Isotypes

IgA IgG IgM IgD IgE. IgM and IgE lack the hinge region

Explain the path of B lymphocytes

Originates and matures in bone marrow, then migrates to secondary lymphoid tissue where it is exposed to antigens. Then, it differentiates into plasma and memory cells. The plasma cells produce antibodies of all IG classes.

What do B lymphocytes do when antibody producing cells are activated in clonal selection?

B lymphocytes recognize intact pathogenic microorganisms and toxins. The B lymphs have specific surface receptors for recognition of antigens IgM and IgD. The binding results in proliferation of a clonal population of cells. The antigen determines clonal proliferation.

Proliferation of activated cells is followed by differentiation into

plasma cells who's life span can be 4-5 days or 1-2 months and memory cells that, when stimulated by an antigen, differentiate into plasma cells. Memory cells have a life span of years to decades.

Primary Antibody Response

after exposure to an antigen, there is a slow rise in IgM, followed by a slow rise in IgG.

Secondary Antibody Response

AFter exposure to previously encountered antigen, there is a rapid rise in IgG and slow or no rise in IGM.

Immune Response to Dengue Fever

The primary response is to make a small amount of IgM int he first couple days, then the memory cells take over and there is a rapid rise in IgG.

T lymphocytes origin/migration to

originate from stem cells in bone marrow then migrate to thymus gland, where they mature then migrate to secondary lymphoid tissue. They respond to antigens on the surface of antigen presenting cells.

Antigen presenting cells

macrophages, dendritic cells, B lymphocytes. They ingest and process antigens then display fragments on their surface in association with molecules of MHC

MHC molecules

Major histocompatibility molecules. Class I present antigens to CD8 T cells. Class II present antigens to CD4 T cells. T cells that encounter antigen differentiate into effector T cells

Name 3 effector T cells in Immune Response

CD8 cytotoxic T cells, CD4 TH1 helper T cells, CD4 TH2 helper T cells

CD8 cytotoxic T cells

effector t cells that enter bloodstream and travel to infection site. kills cells infected with VIRUSES and other intracellular microorganisms. (Once activated to effector state, they leave secondary lymphoid tissue and kill the bad stuff)

CD4 TH1 helper T cells

enter blood stream and travel to infection site. Help activate MACROPHAGES

CD4 TH2 helper T cells

work within secondary lymphoid tissues and help activate B cells

Prevention of Hepatitis B

Vaccination with hepatitis B surface antigen HBsAg

Post-exposure protection against Hepatitis B

Administration of Hepatitis B Globulin Human, which is purified IgG antibody from plasma of donors with high titer of antibody to the hepatitis B surface antigen.

Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Using Remicade (infliximab) IgG kappa monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-alpha)

Treatment against Breast Cancer

Herceptin (trastuzumab) IgG kappa monoclonal antibody against human epidermal growth factor recepter 2 (HER2)

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