100 terms

Exam 1

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Most initial impressions of a novel situation are made using
automatic thinking
according to the authors of your test, when faced with a puzzling social quesion, it may be tempting to ask people why they behaved as they did. Why is this not always the best way to understand social behavior?
People would not necessarily know why they behaved as they did.
Applying the lessons learned from Rosenthal and Jacobson, if you wanted your child to succeed, what would be the best nickname for him?
Champ
Christopher is considering breaking up with his high-school sweetheart. He spends many hours weighing the benefits and drawbacks, he asks his friends for advice, and he thinks about it further before coming to his decision. In this case Christopher is using
Controlled thinking
In general, when people first encounter a novel situation, they tend to
size up the situation quickly and effortlessly and, for the most part, correctly
according to the authors of your text, in the social cognition approach a major hallmark of being human is
perception of reality
Which of the following is the best definition of the fundamental attribution to error
the tendency to underestimate the power of social influence
Recall that Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson (1968) informed grade-school teachers that some of their students (called "bloomers") would show great academic improvement in the upcoming year. Also recall that students labeled "bloomers" actually showed greater increases on IQ tests compared to students who were not labeled "bloomers." These differences occurred because the teachers.
decided to devote their attention to the students with the most promise.
In trying to make sense of the mass suicide in Jonestown, a behaviorist would probably examine the
rewards and punishments that Jim Jones used to influence his followers.
Assume that instead of conducting experiments, Latané and Darley had used a correlational method to study the relationship between the number of bystanders who witness an emergency and how quickly a victim receives help. Assume that the correlational data were compatible with results from experiments: the more bystanders, the more time it took bystanders to help. What type of correlation is this between time and number of bystanders?
a positive correlation
Recall that Kelley (1950) told some students that a guest instructor was a warm person and others that a guest instructor was a cold person. When the instructor behaved in an arrogant way, he was rated as immodest, no matter what students were told about him at the outset. These findings suggest that
when behaviors are clear, we rely less on our schemas.
According to the authors of your text, when people use automatic thinking, they tend to size up new situations
quickly and accurately
Social psychologists use the term ________ to describe the way in which people perceive, comprehend, and interpret their social worlds.
construal
Researchers Miyamoto, Nisbett, and Masuda compared photographs of city scenes in the U.S. and Japan. They found that on average, city scenes in Japan contained more
objects and information.
When a person agrees to participate in an experiment in full awareness of the nature of the experiment, which has been provided prior to their participation, the participant has provided
informed consent.
Which of the following is not a typical example of the kind of knowledge that is contained in a schema? Your knowledge
of the first date when you spilled red punch all over your partner.
The whole is different from the sum of its parts. This statement reflects a tenet of ________ psychology.
Gestalt
Marco is an athlete and plays three different types of sports. When he sees Emma in a track suit, he assumes that she is an athlete as well. The reason this happens is that Marco's schema is
is primed by the representativeness heuristic.
The variable a researcher measures to see if it is affected in the experiment is called the
dependent variable.
According to the definition of social psychology presented in your text, social psychology is the study of how ________ affect the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of humans.
the presence of real or imagined others
A researcher wants to see if there is a relationship between a person's birth order and his or her leadership ability. The best method for answering this question would be
correlational
Professor Swenson is interested in university students' reactions to the death of a popular rock star. For two weeks, Professor Swenson spends one hour a day in a popular cafeteria, inconspicuously listening to students, joining in their conversations when the topic of the dead rock star comes up, and recording what the students have to say. Professor Swenson is conducting ________ research.
observational
Behaviorists believe that all learning is a result of
reinforcement and punishment
Complete the analogy: hindsight bias: _________:: hypothesis: _________.
retrospection; prediction
Which of the following is not an example of automatic thinking?
conducting a search on the Internet
In their experiment, why did Bibb Latané and John Darley (1968) expose all participants to the same audiotaped seizure? They wanted
to be able to assign participants at random.
Which research method allows the researcher to focus on causality?
experimental methods
Jordan's lover of four years just left him. He is hurt, angry, and confused, and says to himself, "He never did understand my need for independence." This explanation for the break-up best reflects which human motive?
justifying our suffering
When researchers say that there is a relationship between two variables, this means
one is causing the other.
In explaining why so many people watching on the Internet failed to come to the aid of Abraham Biggs, who committed suicide, a behaviorist would most likely address the
danger or inconvenience that faced anyone who intervened.
The major difference between experiments and other research methods is that experiments involve
both internal and external validity
In order for priming to work successfully, thoughts need to be both
applicable and accessible.
Which of the following pairs of variables are most likely to be negatively correlated?
calories consumed; weight loss
The way that automatic and controlled thinking tend to work together can be best compared to a
modern jet system that can fly on automatic pilot but also has a manual override.
A researcher is designing an experiment, and ensures that each participant is equally likely to be in one condition as another. He does not assign them based on any characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, or personality. This researcher is ________ participants.
randomly selecting
According to the authors of your text, people raised in which of the following countries would be most likely to have a holistic thinking style?
China
A goal of ethnography that makes it different from other methods of testing theories is that in ethnography, the researcher
tries to understand the group or culture without imposing his or her own ideas on it.
Our use of mental shortcuts usually leads to
good decisions in a reasonable amount of time.
The "father" of modern experimental social psychology, Kurt Lewin, pointed out the importance of understanding how people ________ their social environments.
construe
Recall that Harold Kelley (1950) told some college students that their guest instructor was a warm person, and others that he was a cold person. Students who were told that the guest instructor was a warm person evaluated him more positively and participated more in class discussion than did students who were told that he was cold. These results support the idea that schemas are
different, depending on the information to which we are exposed.
Institutional review boards (IRBs) must be composed of certain types of people. If the IRB at Claudius University already consists of a scientist and a nonscientist, which of the following people would also need to be on the IRB at Claudius University?
Mr. Allen, a physician in the town near Claudius University
Alice goes to see a rerun of Jaws (a movie about a vicious shark) a few days before she takes off to Florida on spring break. On break, she finds that she is now too nervous to spend much time actually in the water, since she is convinced that anything she sees in the water is a shark. Her heightened sensitivity is due to
priming
Complete the analogy: analytic thinking style: ___________ :: holistic thinking style: _____________.
Great Britain; Italy
When most Americans walk into a fast food restaurant chain, they know they should walk up to the counter to order, pay, and pick up their food, rather than sit down and wait to be served. This knowledge of how to act in such a situation is called a
stereotype
When Matilda met Joe, she instantly categorized him as a nerd because of his appearance and intense interest in technology and mathematics. Matilda's categorization is an example of her use of
schemas
Julia reads a research study which shows that when children have a mother who talks about emotions with them, the children tend to be more empathetic. Julia scoffs, "This is obvious; I could have told you that!" Julia's reaction to the study is an example of
the hindsight bias.
How do social psychologists differ from those who rely on common sense or folk wisdom in answering questions about human nature? Social psychologists
use science to test hypotheses about the social world.
"People literally create their own realities" is the basic idea behind ________.
the self-fulfilling prophecy
Social psychological research has convincingly demonstrated that the ________ the initiation to join a group, the ________ the initiates like the group.
more severe; more
In many respects, reality television shows are similar to observational research in social psychology. In what crucial respect are reality TV shows most different from observational research?
The observations were not conducted in a systematic, scientific manner
Ava is at a party, deep in conversation with her friends. Suddenly, she hears her name mentioned in another conversation and her attention turns to monitor that conversation. Clearly, Ava had been unconsciously monitoring the other conversations. Such experiences demonstrate the
cocktail party effect
You have just arrived for your first year of college, but your roommate, Leah, is nowhere to be found. Your next-door neighbor, Tim, tells you that he's met Leah, and that she's really shy and introverted. If you wanted to counteract the self-fulfilling prophecy, what might you do when you meet Leah?
Try to get her to talk about fun activities she did in high school.
Jane analyzed the results of her study and found that the probability of getting such findings by chance was less than 1 in 100. Jane can say that her results are statistically
significant
87. Karen is so used to driving to her boyfriend's house that when she is taking her little brother to softball practice early one morning, before she is fully awake, she finds herself driving to her boyfriend's house instead. This is an example of
automatic thinking.
Spinoza (1663) proposed the idea that when you love someone whom you used to hate, you
love him or her more strongly than if hatred had not preceded the love
Isaac is on an interview for a job for which he is well qualified. However, he is worried that some of the people may have negative schemas about his ethnicity and that they may shape his behavior on the interview with self-fulfilling prophecies. Of the people he meets with (listed below), who is the least likely to use self-fulfilling prophecies?
Tyler, who is paying close attention to Isaac, and wants to make an accurate judgment of him
Which of the following best defines the term "sample"?
a group of people who are representative of the population as a whole
Korsakov's syndrome is a neurological disorder that makes sufferers unable to form new memories. The world is disorienting and incoherent to patients with this disorder, so they often confabulate and invent fictions to make the world less scary and confusing. A social psychologist might say that these patients
invent schemas where none exist.
When you meet your new roommate for the first time, he is wearing glasses, listening to classical music, and reading a copy of the New Yorker Review of Books. You think, "Well, maybe rooming with an intellectual this year will be good for me." You instantly categorized your roommate as an intellectual on the basis of your
schemas
Watson, the computer, won his game of Jeopardy against two very skilled opponents. However, he would not do very well at
poker
In a controlled experiment, Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) informed grade school teachers that some of their students (called "bloomers") would show great academic improvement in the upcoming year. In reality, the "bloomers" were chosen randomly by the researchers, and were no smarter than any of the other students. Which of the following best describes the results of this study? At the end of the year,
bloomers improved more on an IQ test than did non-bloomers
Social cognition is the study of how people
think about themselves and the social world.
Why do we use schemas?
Without schemas, the world would seem inexplicable and confusing.
Isabella goes to a fortune teller who tells her, "You are the type of person who is very outgoing and sociable, yet at times you enjoy being alone." Isabella thinks this captures her personality amazingly well, because she finds many instances in her memories of such behaviors. Isabella has just fallen prey to the
self-fulfilling prophecy
Why is a scientific approach preferable to reliance on folk wisdom and common sense?
Folk wisdom and common sense are filled with contradictions.
Whereas observational research is designed to ________ behavior, correlational research is designed to ________.
systematically describe; assess relations between variables
Research in which a representative sample of people are asked questions about their attitudes or behavior is called
survey research.
Research demonstrated that physical sensation can activate metaphors that influence our judgments about unrelated topics. If you wanted students to take your petition seriously, you should present the information about it
on a heavy tablet
When social psychologists do research, they seek to answer questions with experimentation and measurement. By doing so, they are asking _______ questions.
empirical
Automatic thinking tends to be all of the following except
voluntary
If two variables have no correlation with one another, this means that
you cannot predict one from the other.
Dr. Winstell is interested in studying prejudice, and devises a study in which Caucasian participants are led to believe that they are chatting electronically with an African-American participant. In reality, the participants are responding to another Caucasian participant, and she discloses this information to all participants at the end of the study. Dr. Winstell has used ________ in her study.
deception
Several studies conducted by Nisbett and his colleagues suggest that people who grow up in East Asian cultures think more ___________ than people who grew up in Western cultures.
holistically
Warren believes that Tom is an outgoing, gregarious person. "Whom did you hang out with this weekend?" Warren asks Tom. "Tell me about all of the fun things that you have planned for the summer," Warren continues. Although Tom is usually rather quiet and reserved, he responds to Warren in an outgoing, friendly manner. This is an example of
a self-fulfilling prophecy.
If your professor asks you to list ten ways to improve the course and you cannot do it, how will that affect your course ratings overall?
...
Recall that Latané and Darley observed the number of participants in each experimental condition who left their cubicles to help the alleged victim of a seizure. The ________ was the independent variable in their experiment.
number of other participants present
Based on information from your text about cultural differences in thinking, complete the analogy: Western: _________:: Eastern: __________.
analytic; holistic
Imagine it is the end of a long day and you are hot and ready to head home. If the research on the connection between physical sensations and the judgments they affect is correct which of the following about social influence is most likely to occur?
You will not be influenced because you feel too negatively.
After reading Chapter 2 (Methodology), what would you say to a president who proudly takes credit for the following events happening during his term: lowering the deficit, reducing crime, and increasing literacy?
"Correlation does not mean causation."
Based on the information in this chapter, when we meet someone new, we are likely to
categorize this person based on our schemas and other people we know.
Are people who are better educated more or less prejudiced than people who have less education? This question is most appropriately answered by using
correlational research
________ refers to the way people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgments and decisions about themselves and others.
Social cognition
We can form impressions of people we interact with rather quickly and effortlessly. We do this by engaging in an automatic analysis of our environments, based on.
our past experiences and knowledge of the world.
According to the authors of your text, people are likely to quickly categorize people they have just met. This is due to people's reliance on
schemas
Several studies conducted by Nisbett and his colleagues involved showing participants two similar pictures and asking them to find the differences between them. Nisbett and colleagues found that Western participants had a more __________ thinking style, and East participants had a more ___________ thinking style.
analytic; holistic
Before Jonas Salk discovered a vaccine to prevent polio, people noticed a correlation between outside temperature and the incidence of polio: The warmer the temperature over the course of the year, the more outbreaks of polio. This relationship is an example of a(n) ________ correlation.
positive
Complete the following analogy. Nonconscious thinking: _______ :: conscious thinking: ________.
automatic; controlled
The social cognition approach compares people to amateur
detectives
Complete the analogy: correlation: __________:: experiment: __________.
relate; cause
A researcher discovers a strong positive correlation between ice cream sales and the incidence of violent crimes. Based on this, we can conclude that
on a day when ice cream sales are high, there are likely to be more violent crimes.
The fact that students "instantly" know the difference between a classroom and a party is an example of a(n)
schema
Tiffany has a hard time trusting other people her age because she believes they are irresponsible. Accordingly, when she makes dinner plans with one friend, she also makes backup plans with someone else, and she goes to one or the other. Her friends soon in turn begin to "blow off" their arrangements since it is not clear whether or not Tiffany will show up. Tiffany has created
a self-fulfilling prophecy
Observational research allows a researcher to
provide a description of a phenomenon.
Using random selection is a way to ensure that
every participant in a sample has an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment.
Social psychologists have identified two motives that are of primary importance in explaining our thoughts and behaviors. According to your textbook authors, these are the need to ________ and the need to ________.
be as accurate as possible; feel good about ourselves
One strength of observational research methods is that they can be useful for describing behavior. However, these methods do not allow researchers to ________ human behavior.
predict and explain
Which of the following is the best illustration of a self-fulfilling prophecy?
Emily always wanted to be a physician when she grew up and is now finishing medical school.
A researcher is interested in the relationship between the number of a person's past sexual partners and the person's decision to have an HIV test. To determine this, the researcher should use the ________ method.
correlational
The term "self-fulfilling prophecy" refers to the tendency to
inadvertently elicit the very behaviors we expect from others.
If all humans have access to the same cognitive tools, what is the role of culture?
It help make accurate decisions
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