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Nutrition Exam 2 - ch 5 , 6, and 7
Terms in this set (76)
Jill is 24 years old and weighs 125 pounds. What is Jill's approximate protein requirement per day?
limiting amino acid
The amino acid that is in the shortest supply in an incomplete protein is known as the
Excess protein is stored as
Proteins help increase ________, the feeling of fullness, after a meal more than either carbohydrate or fat
alterations in the protein's function.
Denaturation of a protein results in
any foods of animal origin
A vegan diet excludes which of the following?
It may be harmful for individuals at high risk of developing breast cancer.
Which of the following statements about soy is CORRECT?
They are not necessary for protein synthesis.
Which of the following statements is NOT true of non-essential amino acids?
Amino acids are joined together by which kind of bond?
Isoflavones have a chemical structure similar to human ________.
The average adult, aged 19 and older, should consume how many grams of protein for each kilogram of body weight?
How many calories are yielded by 1 gram of protein?
The most abundant protein in the body is
A gene is a segment of ________ that codes for a specific protein.
Vegetarian diets have been shown to lower the risk of the following diseases, EXCEPT
It is recommended that you consume from 10 to ________ percent of your calories from protein.
The proteins that act as catalysts and speed up reactions are
A diet that is too high in protein can increase the risk for all of the following EXCEPT
The absorption of amino acids takes place in the
Vitamin C is necessary for which of the following processes?
Which of the following is a form of naturally occurring vitamin E?
Naturally occurring vitamin B12 is found in which food?
All of these answers are correct.
Which factors may be responsible for the increase in cases of rickets in the United States?
The disease of vitamin C deficiency is called ________.
in the liver and then kidneys
Where is the inactive form of vitamin D converted to the active form?
Ascorbic acid acts as a coenzyme and is essential for the production of ________.
The B vitamins ________ and vitamin B12 are needed for healthy red blood cells.
Which of the following compounds is NOT derived from vitamin B6?
Thiamin deficiency results in which condition?
Which vitamin is essential for blood clotting?
Abundant in foods from animal sources, ________ is a vitamin-like substance needed to properly utilize fat.
Which of the following is NOT an antioxidant?
They do not increase the risk of overconsuming some nutrients.
Which of the following statements is NOT true of fortified foods?
Vitamin C is plays an important role in the absorption of ________ from plant foods such as grains and cereals.
Which of the following vitamins travels in a micelle along with bile and fatty acids?
Which of the following does NOT accurately describe vitamins?
Which vitamin has been shown to reduce the risk of colon, breast, and pancreatic cancers, as well as reduce the risk of birth defects?
What foods are recommended for good eye health by the NEI?
The symptoms of ________ include dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea, and death.
Which of the following is a protein that provides structural support to body tissues?
Describe the 3 types of lipids and explain differences between triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol.
Triglycerides and cholesterol are both lipids (fats). They both circulate in the bloodstream and are escorted through the blood vessels by lipoproteins. High levels of either can cause heart and circulatory problems. The differences between the two are how they perform inside the body.
Identify major food sources of saturated and unsaturated fats
You'll find saturated fat in foods like these:
Red meat -- beef, lamb, pork.
Skin-on chicken and other poultry.
Whole-milk dairy products like milk, cheese, and ice cream.
Palm and coconut oils.
Polyunsaturated fats are found in high concentrations in
Sunflower, corn, soybean, and flaxseed oils.
Canola oil - though higher in monounsaturated fat, it's also a good source of polyunsaturated fat.
explain what a trans fat is and its specific effects on ldl and hdl cholesterol; understand what partially hydrogenated oil is.
Trans fats raise your bad (LDL) cholesterol levels and lower your good (HDL) cholesterol levels. Eating trans fats increases your risk of developing heart disease and stroke. It's also associated with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Unlike butter or virgin coconut oil, hydrogenated oils contain high levels of trans fats. A trans fat is an otherwise normal fatty acid that has been "transmogrified", by high-heat processing of a free oil. The fatty acids can be double-linked, cross-linked, bond-shifted, twisted, or messed up in a variety of other ways.
The problem with trans fats is that while the "business end" (the chemically active part) is messed up, the "anchor end" (the part that is attached to the cell wall) is unchanged. So they take up their position in the cell wall, like a guard on the fortress wall. But like a bad guard, they don't do their job! They let foreign invaders pass unchallenged, and they stop supplies at the gates instead of letting them in.
Describe essential fatty acids; understand omega-3 fatty acids and their relationship to disease
The human body can make most of the types of fats it needs from other fats or raw materials. That isn't the case for omega-3 fatty acids (also called omega-3 fats and n-3 fats). These are essential fats—the body can't make them from scratch but must get them from food. Foods high in Omega-3 include fish, vegetable oils, nuts (especially walnuts), flax seeds, flaxseed oil, and leafy vegetables.
The strongest evidence for a beneficial effect of omega-3 fats has to do with heart disease. These fats appear to help the heart beat at a steady clip and not veer into a dangerous or potentially fatal erratic rhythm. (1) Such arrhythmias cause most of the 500,000-plus cardiac deaths that occur each year in the United States. Omega-3 fats also lower blood pressure and heart rate, improve blood vessel function, and, at higher doses, lower triglycerides and may ease inflammation, which plays a role in the development of atherosclerosis. (1)
Describe how fat is digested, absorbed, and transported in the body.
In the stomach not much digesting occurs. In the Small intestine, bile emulsifies the fats, enzymes digest them, and the intestinal cells absorb them.
Transportation: Glycerol and short chain fatty acid travel in the blood stream.
Other lipids need special transport vehicles, the lipoproteins to carry them in watery body fluids
1.) Little fat digestion begins in the stomach, fat digestion begins in the small intestine where bile is released by gallbladder into s.intestine. Fat enzymes are split into smaller molecules to be absorbed.
2.) In order to be absorbed fats travel through the absorptive lining of digestive tract, bile shuttles the lipids. The cells then extract the lipids
Describe the major functions of fat in the body
3 types of lipids: 95%Triglycerides(3 units of fatty acid and 1 glycerol), Phospholipids(phosphorous containing acid), and Sterols(cholesterol)
1.)Lipids role in the body:
Energy fuel, stores energy, emergency reserve, padding, insulation, cell membranes, and raw materials (lipids are converted to hormones,bile and Vit D)
2.)Lipids role in food:
Nutrients, transport, energy, appeals to senses,appetite, texture, satiety/fullness
3.)Some amount of fat is necessary in the diet because your body needs to be energized from the fat. Essential fatty acids are crucial in order to live which we get from fat since the body cannot make these fats or function without them.
define the dietary recommendations for total fat
Avoid trans fat.
Limit saturated fat to less than 10 percent of calories a day.
Replace saturated fat with healthier monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.
understand how to calculate the fat intake
Identify major food sources of different types of fats, including essential fats, saturated fats, and trans fats.
Understand the health benefits associated with omega-3 fatty acids
Blood fat (triglycerides). Fish oil supplements can lower elevated triglyceride levels. Having high levels of this blood fat puts you at risk for heart disease.
Rheumatoid arthritis. Fish oil supplements (EPA+DHA) can curb stiffness and joint pain. Omega-3 supplements also seem to boost the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory drugs.
Depression. Some researchers have found that cultures that eat foods with high levels of omega-3s have lower levels of depression. Fish oil also seems to boost the effects of antidepressants and may help the depressive symptoms of bipolar disorder.
Baby development. DHA appears to be important for visual and neurological development in infants.
describe the development of atherosclerosis & heart disease risk factors; explain how lifestyle factors affect risk for heart disease
Know the "Fabulous" numbers for total, LCL & HDL
Name the 4 fish that young children and pregnant and nursing women should avoid per the FDA
Best choices are safe to eat two to three servings a week. They include cod, haddock, lobster, oysters, salmon, scallops, shrimp, sole and tilapia.
Good choices are safe to eat one serving a week. They include bluefish, grouper, halibut, mahi mahi, yellowfin tuna and snapper.
Fish to avoid shouldn't be eaten at all because they have the highest mercury levels. They include King mackerel, marlin, shark, and swordfish.
Explain how saturated fat affects LDL cholesterol and identify the best way to raise HDL cholesterol
Eating a lot of saturated fat increases your blood cholesterol, in particular increasing the bad (LDL) cholesterol.
Choosing foods with healthier fats instead helps to balance your blood cholesterol, by increasing the good (HDL) cholesterol and lowering the bad (LDL) cholesterol, which reduces your risk of heart disease.
Saturated fat mainly comes from the fat you can see on meat and chicken, from dairy products and from some plant foods like palm and coconut oil. It can be found in processed foods like biscuits, pastries and takeaway foods that have used ingredients like butter, palm oil (often simply called vegetable oil), cheese and meat.
explain how proteins are chemically different from carbohydrates and lipids
Proteins, carbohydrates and fats are made from three basic molecules: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. However, all proteins contain an element not found in carbohydrates and fats -- nitrogen -- and some proteins also contain sulfur. These elements combine in varying amounts and shapes to form the basic building blocks of each macronutrient. The main unit that builds all carbohydrates is a monosaccharide, or sugar, while triglycerides make fats and proteins consist of amino acids. Sulfur is incorporated into some proteins through two amino acids: methionine and cysteine.
Understand what an amino acid is
Explain the difference between essential and nonessential amino acids
understand denaturing a protein
Identify where protein is primarily absorbed in the body
Explain the fate of amino acids in the body
Understand the basics of protein synthesis
Identify the major functions of protein in the body
Explain why not all protein is created equally ; understand vocabulary words associated with amino acid profile.
An amino acid is made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, a nitrogen-containing amine group, and a unique side chain. There are 20 side chains and so 20 unique amino acids. Whereas all 20 amino acids are needed to make proteins, 11 of these can be synthesized in your body and are thus nonessential. The remaining nine amino acids are the essential amino acids that your body cannot synthesize. Essential amino acids must be obtained in your diet. Amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds to create proteins. The attractions and interactions between the side chains cause the protein to fold into a precise three-dimensional shape. The protein's shape determines its function. Heat, mechanical agitation, acids, bases, and salts can break, or denature, a protein and alter its shape and function.
Understand the difference between "complete" (high-quality) and "incomplete" (low-quality) proteins.
The second factor that affects protein quality concerns the types and amounts of amino acids that the protein contains, or its amino acid profile. A protein that provides all nine of the essential amino acids, along with some of 11 nonessential amino acids, is considered a complete protein. A protein that is low or deficient in one or more of the essential amino acids is considered an incomplete protein. A complete protein is considered of higher quality than an incomplete protein. A complete protein is considered of higher quality than an incomplete protein. Protein from animal sources, such as meat, fish, and poultry is typically complete protein, whereas protein from plant foods tends to be incomplete
Identify sources of plant-based protein; know why soy protein is different from other plant proteins.
Soy protein-based formulas are free of cow's protein and lactose and can be used for infants who can't tolerate cow's milk protein-based formula or who are vegetarians. Hypoallergenic infant formulas are available for infants who can't consume cow's milk or soy formulas.
Understand the health benefits associated with a diet rich in plant-based protein.
The many types of vegetarians
Calculate the recommended protein intake for a healthy adult
Adults age 19 and older should consume 0.8 gram(g) of protein for each kilogram(kg) of body weight. For example, a person who weighs 176 pounds(lb) would weigh 80kg (176 lb / 2.2 = 8-kg) and should consume 80kg x 0.8g, or 64g of protein a day. A person who weighs 130lb should consume approximately 47g of protein daily (130lb) / 2.2= 59kg x 0.8g= 47g). In the United States, men age 20 and older consume , on average, 68 grams every day. As you can see, Americans are typically meeting, and even exceeding, their dietary protein needs.
Explain the health consequences of consuming too little or too much protein
too much can lead to heart disease, kidney stones, osteoporosis, and cancer
too little protein can lead to poor health and malnutrition
eating too little protein can lead to many health problems, especially in older adults. A diet that is chronically inadequate in protein can lead to the reduction of lean body mass. In older individuals, this can contribute to the increased risk of becoming frail, impairing wound healing, and decreasing immune function. Consuming adequate protein throughout the day is important to preserving lean body mass as you age.
Kwashiorkor -edema in the legs, feet, and stomach.
understand why a high-protein diet leads to short-term fast weight loss
Frequent Urination and Excessive Thirst
In the initial stages of a high-protein diet, you will very likely experienced increased urinary frequency. According to a "Self Magazine" article, large amounts of protein in the diet have a diuretic effect on the body. Nitrogen is a byproduct of protein metabolism and is toxic to the body. The body responds to the presence of nitrogen by pulling water water from its tissues to flush out the nitrogen, which results in frequent urination and excessive thirst. As your body adapts to the high-protein diet, your thirst and urination levels normalize.
Fast Initial Weight Loss
High-protein, low-carbohydrate diets result in quicker initial weight loss than low-calorie diets, but only during the early stages of the diet, as noted in the "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition." The study measured the rate of weight loss in two separate groups - a low-carbohydrate, high protein diet group and a low-fat, low-calorie diet group. During the first 12 weeks, the high-protein group lost significantly more weight than the low-calorie group. By week 36 the weight loss had evened out between the two groups. This may be due in part to the diuretic effect of high-protein diets.
Explain the differences between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins, and know which are fat-soluble.
Fat-Soluble vitamins are stored in your body and used as needed when your dietary intake falls short. Your liver is the main storage depot for vitamin A and to lesser extent vitamins K and E, whereas vitamin D is mainly stored in your fat and muscle tissues. Because they are stored in the body, large quantities of some of the fat-soluble vitamins, particularly A and D, can build up to toxicity, causing harmful symptoms and conditions.
There are nine water-soluble vitamins, and eight of them belong to the vitamin B complex. When initially discovered in the early 1900s, the "water-soluble B" was thought to be one vitamin. After years of research it became apparent that this was not a single substance but rather many vitamins - thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pathothenic acid, and biotin-known collectively as the B vitamins. The ninth water-soluble is vitamin C
Water-soluble vitamins are different from fat-soluble vitamins in that they dissolve in water, are generally not stored in the body, and are often excreted in the urine.
List at 1 good food source for vitamins A,D, E , and K
Vitamin A - is stored in the liver, chicken liver is a potent source of this vitamin.
is essential for vision
Vitamin D - one of the easiest ways to get your vitamin d from food is to drink fortified milk, which provides 100IU, or 2.5 micrograms, of vitamin d per cup.
Whether from food or sunlight, vitamin D enters your body in an inactive form. The ultraviolet rays of the sun convert a cholesterol-containing compound in your skin to previtamin D, which is then converted to an inactive form of vitamin D in your blood. The vitamin D in your foods is also in this inactive form.
Vitamin E - fat soluble, vegetable oils, foods that contain these oils, nuts, and seeds are good sources. Some green leafy vegetables, avocado, and fortified cereals.
This role is extremely important in protecting cell membranes and preventing oxidation of the "bad" ldl cholesterol carrier.
Vitamin K - Vegetables like broccoli, spinach, salad grens, brussels sprouts, and cabbage are all rich in vitamin k.
plays a major role in blood coagulation, or clotting. Blood clotting is a complex chain of events involving substances in your blood, many of which are proteins, called clotting factors.
define the term antioxidant and identify which vitamins perform this function.
Identify the nutrients that are antioxidants
Substances that neutralize freed radicals. Vitamin A, C, and E and beta-carotene are antioxidants.
list at least 1 good food source for the following water-soluble vitamins.
While each one has a unique role, as a group they're necessary for the conversion of glucose to energy, metabolizing fats and protein and supporting the nervous system, skin, liver, muscles, hair and eyes.
The best food sources of the B-complex vitamins are whole grains, fortified cereals, meat, fish, green leafy vegetables, milk products, eggs, nuts, beans and legumes. Vegetables and fruits that are highest in B vitamins include peas, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, spinach, potatoes, corn, tomatoes, peaches, cauliflower, bananas and beets.
Vitamin B1 - Thiamine
Thiamine helps to promote normal appetite and, like other B-complex vitamins, strengthens the immune system. Foods especially rich in this vitamin include nuts, such as pecans and macadamias, fish and meats.
Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin
Vitamin B2 works as an antioxidant and helps convert B6 and folate into active forms in the body. It is also necessary for healthy vision and, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center, may help prevent cataracts. Many foods provide the vitamin, including brewer's yeast, organ meats, whole grains and dairy products.
Vitamin B3 - Niacin
Niacin helps produce hormones and improves circulation by widening the blood vessels. It is also used to reduce levels of bad cholesterol and increase good cholesterol. Niacin is provided by eggs, enriched breads, nuts and poultry.
Vitamin B5 - Pantothenic Acid
Critical for the production of red blood cells and steroid hormones, vitamin B5 is also needed for the synthesis of cholesterol and helps the body use riboflavin. Avocados, vegetables in the cabbage family and potatoes are good sources of the vitamin.
Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxine
Information at the University of Maryland Medical Center states that B6 affects more than 60 proteins throughout the body, but is especially important in the nervous system and blood cell production. It helps produce the chemicals that nerves use to communicate with one another, making it essential for normal brain development and function. It also participates in the synthesis of melatonin. Pyridoxine is provided by avocados, bananas, meats and nuuts. Along with vitamins B12 and folic acid, vitamin B6 protects the body from cardiovascular disease by reducing the level of homocysteine in the blood.
Vitamin B7 - Biotin
Biotin is also called vitamin H. It assists in metabolic reactions and plays a role in maintaining levels of blood sugar. It is frequently found in products for the hair and skin and is recommended to counteract hair loss and to strengthen nails. Good sources of biotin include chocolate, legumes, milk and nuts.
Vitamin B9 - Folate or Folic Acid
This vitamin is also important for the brain and plays a significant role in mental health. It assists in the production of DNA and RNA and controls levels of homocysteine. It also works together with vitamin B12 to regulate the formation of red blood cells and help iron function. Folate comes from beets, legumes, peanuts and green, leafy vegetables. A deficiency in folate is associated with problems in fetal development, including neural tube defects.
Vitamin B12 - Cobalamin
Cobalimin is needed for metabolism; it plays a role in the formation of red blood cells and helps maintain the central nervous system. Vitamin B12 is added to fortified cereals and grains, but otherwise, it is found in only animal products including meats, fish, eggs and milk.
Vitamin C - Ascorbic Acid
Vitamin C is necessary for the production and repair of tissues throughout the body. It helps make collagen, which is a protein vital to skin, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels. It heals wounds and maintains bones. Vitamin C is also an important antioxidant. Inadequate amounts of vitamin C are associated with high blood pressure, stroke, atherosclerosis, gallbladder disease and some cancers. The best sources are oranges, peppers, cantaloupe, strawberries, broccoli, tomatoes, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, leafy greens, squash, potatoes, raspberries and blueberries.
Understand which vitamin requires intrinsic factor for absorption
To understand the importance of intrinsic factor, it's necessary to understand the importance of B12. Vitamin B12 is involved in the metabolism of every cell in the human body. It plays a key role in DNA synthesis and formation, red blood cell creation, and brain function.
know the major deficiency diseases associated with the fat and water-soluble vitamins.
The bottom line
Deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins are unlikely if you eat a rich and varied diet. Eating a variety of fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains is especially important.
Your body stores these vitamins for later use in the skin and liver. Even if you don't get your daily allowance all the time, you still avoid deficiency. If you have certain illnesses this may be a different matter. Talk to your doctor if you have concerns.
A need for these vitamins to be supplemented in the diet is rare. Still, your doctor may prescribe a supplement if you are deficient or have certain illnesses. You may also find these vitamins in typical daily supplements, such as vitamin A. If you're pregnant, your doctor can help you determine how to address deficiencies. The retinol found in vitamin A can be harmful to an unborn baby if the mother takes higher than recommended doses, and retinol-based face creams are not recommended.
Remember: Fat-soluble vitamins don't get discarded from the body as easily as water-soluble ones. Taking excess supplement doses over a long period of time may adversely affect your health.
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