FTCE physical education exam

STUDY
PLAY
IDENTIFY METHODS OF EVALUATION IN THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN OF
LEARNING

Standardized Tests
scientifically constructed test with established validity
and reliability
IDENTIFY METHODS OF EVALUATION IN THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN OF
LEARNING

Teacher-made Tests
developed personally by the teacher
IDENTIFY METHODS OF EVALUATION IN THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN OF
LEARNING

Essay Tests/Written Assignments
- tests the ability to organize information
presented logically in written paragraphs.
IDENTIFY METHODS OF EVALUATION IN THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN OF
LEARNING

Objective Tests
true/false, multiple choice, matching, diagrams,
completion, or short written response
IDENTIFY METHODS OF EVALUATION IN THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN OF
LEARNING

Norm-Referenced Tests
compares individual's score to those of others
IDENTIFY METHODS OF EVALUATION IN THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN OF
LEARNING

Criterion-Referenced Tests
Interpreting a score by comparing it to a
predetermined standard.
Harrocks Prosocial Behavior Inventory (HPBBI)
measures prosocial
play behavior of 5th and 6th graders in recreational play
Adams Prosocial Inventory
(social measures)- measures high schools students' prosocial behaviors in physical education classes.
Nelson Leadership Questionnaire
(social measures)- determines leaders as perceived by instructors, coaches, classmates, and teammates.
Cowell Personal Distance Scale
(social measures)- measures congruity of a student within a group and his/her yearly development.
Blanchard Behavior Rating Scale
(social measures)- measures student personality and character.
McKethan Student Attitude Inventory-Instructional Processes in
Secondary Physical Education (SAI-IPSPE)
(attitude measures) measures attitudes of
students toward instructional processes (e.g. teacher's verbal behavior,
nature of activities, patterns of class organization, and regulations and
policies in conceptual physical education environment).
Toulmin Elementary Physical Education Attitude Scale (TEPEAS)
measures attitudes of the physical education program of elementary
school students.
Feelings About Physical Activity
measures commitment to activity
Children's Attitudes Toward Physical Activity-Revised (CATPA)
measures significance students place on physical activity.
Willis Sports Attitudes Inventory - Form C
measures motives of
competition in sports (achievement, power, success, avoiding failure).
Sport Orientation Questionnaire - Form B
measures behaviors of
achievement and competition during exercising and sports.
McMahan Sportsmanship Questionnaire
measures high school
students' attitudes toward sportsmanship.
Physical Estimation and Attraction Scale
measures motivation and
measures interest
Cratly Adaptation of Piers-Harris Self-Concept and Scale
measures/estimates students' own feelings about their appearance and
skill performance abilities
Merkley Measure
measures perception of
physical self relating to exercise and activity
Nelson-Allen
measures satisfaction of
movement.
Tanner Movement
measures students' own level of
satisfaction/dissatisfaction with their own movement.
Miller and Allen
measures level of stress according
to stress indicators
Sport Competition Anxiety Tests
measures anxiety toward
competition via one's perception of the competition as threatening or nonthreatening.
Iowa Brace Test
measures motor educability.
AAHPERD Youth Fitness Test
measures motor capacity.
AAHPERD Health Related Physical Fitness Test
measures physical
capacity.
McCloy's General Motor Ability and Capacity Test
measures motor
ability and motor efficiency.
Rodgers Strength Test
measures muscular strength
Texas PE Test
measures motor ability
Skills tests for accuracy
involve kicking, throwing, or striking an object
toward a goal; activities include volleyball serves, basketball free throws,
badminton short serves, and basketball passing (e.g. AAHPERD: Basketball
Passing Test for Accuracy).
Skills test for total bodily movement
requires performing a test course
that involves movements similar to a given sport (e.g. AAHPERD: Basketball
Control Test).
Wall Volley Test
measures the number of consecutive successful
time/trials to pass, kick, throw, or strike an object at a wall in a given time
(e.g. AAHPERD: Basketball Passing Test).
Skills Tests for Power or Distance
involve kicks, throws, or strokes to
measure the ability to kick, throw, or strike an object (e.g. Badminton Drive
for Distance and the Cornish Handball Power Test).
Combination Tests
composed of previous groupings to assess speed
and accuracy
Inclusion
describes the attempt to accommodate all students in the learning
process
Portfolio construction
is one way of assessing the performance of a student.
The student chooses the achievements to add to the portfolio. This creates a tool
that assesses current abilities and serves as a benchmark against which the
instructor can measure future performance (thus evaluating progress over time,
and not just a localized achievement).
Student self-assessment
is often an important part of portfolios. The instructor
should ask children questions like, "Where am I now? Where am I trying to go?
What am I trying to achieve? How can I get from here to there?" This type of
questioning involves the child more deeply in the learning process.
• Event Recording (rate-per-minute, rate of occurrence) - .
counts the
number of attempts students have to try a skill and the number of positive
teacher-student interactions.
• Duration Recording
measures amount of time teacher spends on
instructions, time spent on managing student activities, and time spent
managing the participation of students.
Group Time Sampling/Playcheck Recording
counts the number of
students participating in the activity.
Self Recording
students sign in their arrival time to class and how many
completed tasks they accomplish.
Student assessments
that can facilitate changes in instructional strategies
include:
Formal assessments
such as win/loss records, written tests, skills tests,
performance records, and reviewing videotaped performances.
Informal assessments
such as rating scales, observational performance
descriptions, completing skills checklist, and utilizing observational time.
Body composition
an essential measure of health and fitness. The most
important aspects of body composition are body fat percentage and ratio of body
fat to muscle.

is an indicator of an individual's health status and potential to
participate in physical activities. Specifically, body composition addresses an
individual's fat to muscle ratio.
Carbohydrates
the main source of energy (glucose) in the human diet. The
two types of carbohydrates are simple and complex
Proteins
are necessary for growth, development, and cellular function. The
body breaks down consumed protein into component amino acids for future use.
Major sources of protein
Fats
a concentrated energy source and important component of the human
body. The different types of fats are saturated, monounsaturated, and
polyunsaturated.
Vitamins and minerals
organic substances that the body requires in small
quantities for proper functioning. People acquire vitamins and minerals in their
diets and in supplements
Water
55 - 75% of the human body. It is essential for most bodily
functions. Water is obtained through foods and liquids.
Specificity Principle
is overloading a particular fitness component. In order
to improve a component of fitness, you must isolate and specifically work on a
single component.
Progression Principle
states that once the body adapts to the original
load/stress, no further improvement of a component of fitness will occur without
adding an additional load.
Reversibility-of-Training Principle
in which all gains in fitness
are lost with the discontinuance of a training program
COMPUTE THE TARGET HEART RATE ZONE
Cooper's Formula to determine target heart range is:
THR = (220 - AGE) x .60 to (220 - AGE) x .80. This is the most common used
formula among physical educators.

Participants find their THR and attempt to raise their heart rate to the
desired level for a certain period of time. There are three ways to calculate the
target heart rate.
Progression to improve body composition:
• Begin daily.
• Begin a low aerobic intensity and work up to a longer duration (see cardiorespiratory
progression).
• Begin low-intensity aerobic exercise for 30 minutes and work up to 60
minutes of exercise.
The benefits of warming up are:
• Preparing the body for physical activity.
• Reducing the risk of musculoskeletal injuries.
• Releasing oxygen from myoglobin.
• Warming the body's inner core.
• Increasing the reaction of muscles.
• Bringing the heart rate to an aerobic conditioning level.
Cooling down is similar to warming up— a moderate to light tapering-off of
vigorous activity at the end of an exercise session.
The benefits of cooling down are:
• Redistributing blood throughout the body to prevent pooling.
• Preventing dizziness.
• Facilitating the removal of lactic acid.
The goal of physical education is to impart the knowledge, skills, and confidence
necessary for students to enjoy a life of healthful physical activity. There are six
standards for physical education:
• Standard 1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement
patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.
• Standard 2: Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts,
principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and
performance of physical activities.
• Standard 3: Participates regularly in physical activity.
• Standard 4: Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical
fitness.
• Standard 5: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that
respects self and others in physical activity settings.
• Standard 6: Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, selfexpression,
and/or social interaction
Physiological benefits
• Improved cardio-respiratory fitness.
• Improved muscle strength.
• Improved muscle endurance.
• Improved flexibility.
• More lean muscle mass and less body fat.
• Quicker rate of recovery.
• Improved ability of the body to utilize oxygen.
• Lower resting heart rate.
• Increased cardiac output.
• Improved venous return and peripheral circulation.
• Reduced risk of musculoskeletal injuries.
• Lower cholesterol levels.
• Increased bone mass.
• Cardiac hypertrophy and size and strength of blood vessels.
• Increased number of red cells.
• Improved blood-sugar regulation.
• Improved efficiency of thyroid gland.
• Improved energy regulation.
• Increased life expectancy.
Psychological benefits of physical activity include:
• Relief of stress.
• Improved mental health via better physical health.
• Reduced mental tension (relief from depression, improvement of
sleeping patterns).
• Increased resistance to fatigue.
• Improved quality of life.
• Increased enjoyment of leisure time.
• Better capability to handle some stressors.
• Opportunity for successful experiences.
• Improved self-concept and self confidence.
• Better ability to recognize and accept limitations
• Improved appearance and sense of well-being.
• Better ability to meet challenges.
• Better sense of accomplishment.
Sociological benefits of physical activity include:
• The opportunity to spend time with family and friends and to meet new
people and make new friends.
• The opportunity to be part of a team.
• The opportunity to participate in competitive experiences.
• The opportunity to experience the thrill of victory.
Power tests
vertical jump
Coordination tests
Stick Test of Coordination.
Balance tests
Bass Test of Dynamic Balance (lengthwise and crosswise),
Johnson Modification of the Bass Test of Dynamic Balance, modified sideward
leap, and balance beam walk
Body Composition determination
Hydrostatic Weighing, skin fold
measurements, limb/girth circumference, and body mass index.
Muscle strength tests
dynamometers (hand, back, and leg), cable
tensiometer, The 1-RM Test (repetition maximum: bench press, standing press,
arm curl, and leg press), bench-squat, sit-ups (one sit up holding a weight plate
behind the neck), and lateral pull-down.
Flexibility data
identifies an individual's potential for motor skill performance, an
individual's potential for developing musculoskeletal problems (including poor
posture),
Physical activity and related games can introduce children to the concepts of
equity and fairness. In addition, physical activity provides a venue for the
interaction of diverse groups of people, allowing participants to observe and
appreciate cultural differences and similarities.
Physical activity and related games can introduce children to the concepts of
equity and fairness. In addition, physical activity provides a venue for the
interaction of diverse groups of people, allowing participants to observe and
appreciate cultural differences and similarities.
Human Growth and Development
Movement activities promote
personal growth and development physically, by stimulating muscular
development, and emotionally, by raising personal confidence levels
among children, and by allowing them to explore concepts of inter-group
equity that may at first seem threatening. To the insecure child, the
concept that another group may be equal to his own may seem to diminish
his group, and the child by extension.
Psychology
Observation and interaction with the behavior of children
from diverse backgrounds in a training environment (when the training
activities tend to focus more on "doing," which feels more genuine to
children than the classroom setting) allows the child to see in others the
same sorts of behavioral reasoning processes that he sees in himself.
This humanizes others from different backgrounds, and promotes
concepts of equity among diverse groups.
Aesthetics
Human movement activities create an opportunity for
individual participation in activities with intrinsic aesthetic qualities. A
gymnastic technique or a perfectly executed swing of a baseball bat relies
on both physical training and a level of intuitive action. This is an artistic
form of expression that is readily accessible to children. Recognizing
beauty in the activities and performances of others (in some cases from
groups different from that of the observer) is a humanizing experience
Identify the role physical activity plays in developing affective
skills.
Feeling better; reduction of tension and depression; means of affiliation with
others; exhilarating experiences; aesthetic experiences; positive body image;
controls aggression, provides relaxation and a change of pace from long hours of
work, study, or other stresses; provides challenge and sense of accomplishment;
provides a way to be healthy and fit; improves self-esteem by mastering skills;
provides creative experiences; positive addiction to exercise in contrast to
negative substances.
SOCCER:
The following are direct free-kick offenses
• Hand or arm contact with the ball.
• Using hands to hold an opponent.
• Pushing an opponent.
• Striking/kicking/tripping or attempting to strike/kick/trip an opponent.
• Goalie using the ball to strike an opponent.
• Jumping at or charging an opponent.
• Kneeing an opponent.
• Any contact fouls.
SOCCER:
The following are indirect free-kick offenses:
• Same player playing the ball twice at the kickoff, on a throw-in, on a goal
kick, on a free kick, or on a corner kick.
• The goalie delaying the game by holding the ball or carrying the ball more
than four steps.
• Failure to notify the referee of substitutions/re-substitutions and that player
then handling the ball in the penalty area.
• Any non- player entering playing field without a referee's permission.
• Unsportsmanlike actions or words in reference to a referee's decision.
• Dangerously lowering the head or raising the foot too high to make a play.
• A player resuming play after being ordered off the field.
• An offensive player must have two defenders between him/her and the
goal when a teammate passes the ball or else he is offsides.
• Attempting to kick the ball when the goalkeeper has possession or
interference with the goalkeeper to hinder him/her from releasing the ball.
• Illegal charging.
• Leaving the playing field without first obtaining the referee's permission
while the ball is in play.
Tennis
A player loses a point when:
• The ball bounces twice on his/her side of the net.
• The player returns the ball to any place outside of designated areas.
• The player stops or touches the ball in the air before it lands out-of-bounds.
• The player intentionally strikes the ball twice with the racket.
• The ball strikes any part of a player or racket after making an initial
attempt to hit the ball.
• A player reaches over the net to hit the ball.
• A player throws his racket at the ball.
• The ball strikes any permanent fixture that is out-of-bounds (other than
striking the net).
o a ball touching the net and landing inside the boundary lines is in
play (except on the serve, where a ball contacting the net results in
a "let" - replay of the point)
• A player fails, on two consecutive attempts, to serve the ball into the
designated area (i.e. double fault).
ARCHERY
• Arrows that bounce off or through the target count as 7 points.
• Arrows landing on lines between two rings receive the higher score of the
two rings.
• Arrows hitting the petticoat receive no score.
The primary aim of physical education
equip students with the knowledge, skills, capabilities, values, and enthusiasm
necessary to the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle into adulthood, regardless of
physical ability.
All curriculum models have the following characteristics
physical activity, by
which students will become competent in a variety of, and proficient in a few,
physical activities; human movement, in which students will understand and
apply principles of human movement to the learning and development of motor
skills; fitness; responsible behavior, wherein students will exhibit responsible
personal and social behavior in physical activity settings; respect for differences;
and benefits of physical activity, by which students will identify and understand
how physical activity provides personal enjoyment, challenge, self-expression,
and social interaction.
The first few weeks of the school year is the most effective time to teach class management structures
(e.g. behavioral rules, terms for compliance,
consequences for violating rules, and classroom routines).
Instructors must manage essential class structures, procedures, and routines
(e.g. roll call, excuses, tardiness, changing clothes, and showering) in order to
use class time efficiently.
Instructors must effectively plan activities so that they
proceed with precision, minimize "standing-around time", and allow for maximum
activity time for each student. Instructors should arrange activities in advance
and prepare any necessary line markings
Instructors must effectively plan activities so that they
proceed with precision, minimize "standing-around time", and allow for maximum
activity time for each student. Instructors should arrange activities in advance
and prepare any necessary line markings
Common physical education standards require that
students learn skills necessary to participate in a variety of physical activities,
become physically fit, participate regularly in physical activity, understand the
benefits and implications of physical fitness, and value physical activity as part of
a healthy lifestyle
In addition, governmental organizations often determine benchmarks that define
physical development and fitness in school-age children. For example, standards
may indicate what motor skills students should possess at certain ages and the
specific performance criteria that define physical fitness. Instructors can use the
benchmarks and tests to evaluate student development and fitness and plan
curricula for student improvement.
In addition, governmental organizations often determine benchmarks that define
physical development and fitness in school-age children. For example, standards
may indicate what motor skills students should possess at certain ages and the
specific performance criteria that define physical fitness. Instructors can use the
benchmarks and tests to evaluate student development and fitness and plan
curricula for student improvement.
Long-term planning (e.g. one month, one unit, or one semester) allows
instructors to build a comprehensive, sequential curriculum that promotes the
development of student skills, fitness, and knowledge over time. For example,
an elementary instructor may plan a sequence of units starting with basic running
and jumping skills and ending with the introduction of organized sports activities
Long-term planning (e.g. one month, one unit, or one semester) allows
instructors to build a comprehensive, sequential curriculum that promotes the
development of student skills, fitness, and knowledge over time. For example,
an elementary instructor may plan a sequence of units starting with basic running
and jumping skills and ending with the introduction of organized sports activities
Physical education through the Psychomotor Domain
movement skills through participation and observation of sports and other
physical activities; contributes to utilizing leisure hours in mental and cultural
pursuits; contributes skills necessary to preserving the natural environment.
Teaching methods to facilitate psychomotor learning include:
Task/Reciprocal
- The instructor integrates task learning into the learning
setting by utilizing stations
Teaching methods to facilitate psychomotor learning include:
Command/Direct
Task instruction is teacher-centered. The teacher clearly
explains the goals, explains and demonstrates the skills, allocates time for
practice, and frequently monitors student progress
Teaching methods to facilitate psychomotor learning include:
Contingency/Contract
An instructional style in which the teacher rewards
students for the completion of tasks.
Techniques that facilitate psychomotor learning include:
Reflex movements
Activities that create an automatic response to some
stimuli such as: flexing, extending, stretching, and postural adjustment.
Techniques that facilitate psychomotor learning include:
Basic fundamental locomotor movements
Activities that utilize instinctive
patterns of movement established by combining reflex movements
Techniques that facilitate psychomotor learning include:
Perceptual abilities
Activities that involve interpreting auditory, visual,
and tactile stimuli in order to coordinate adjustments.
Techniques that facilitate psychomotor learning include:
Physical abilities
- Activities to develop physical characteristics of fitness
in order to provide students with the stamina needed for highly advanced,
skilled movements.
Techniques that facilitate psychomotor learning include:
Skilled movements
Activities that involve instinctive, effective performance
of complex movement including vertical and horizontal components.
Techniques that facilitate psychomotor learning include:
Nondiscursive(non reasoning natural inuition) communication
Activities necessitating expression as part
of the movement.
Physical education in the Cognitive Domain
contributes to academic
achievement; is related to higher thought processes via motor activity;
contributes to knowledge of exercise, health and disease; contributes to an
understanding of the human body;
Teaching methods that facilitate cognitive learning include:
Problem Solving
The instructor presents the initial task and students come
to an acceptable solution in unique and divergent ways.
Teaching methods that facilitate cognitive learning include:
Conceptual Theory
The instructor's focus is on acquisition of knowledge.
Teaching methods that facilitate cognitive learning include:
Guided Inquiry
Stages of instructions strategically guide students through
a sequence of experiences.
Initially, performing skills will be variable, inconsistent, error-prone, "off-time," and
awkward. Students' focus will be on remembering what to do. Instructors should
emphasize clear communication of the skill's biomechanics and correct errors in
gross movement that effect significant parts of the skill. So students will not be
overburdened with too much information, they should perform one or two
elements at a time
Initially, performing skills will be variable, inconsistent, error-prone, "off-time," and
awkward. Students' focus will be on remembering what to do. Instructors should
emphasize clear communication of the skill's biomechanics and correct errors in
gross movement that effect significant parts of the skill. So students will not be
overburdened with too much information, they should perform one or two
elements at a time
Techniques to facilitate cognitive learning include:
Transfer of learning
Identifying similar movements from a previously
learned skill present in a new skill.
Techniques to facilitate cognitive learning include:
Planning for slightly longer instructions and demonstrations
as students
memorize cues and skills.
Techniques to facilitate cognitive learning include:
Using appropriate language
for the level of the students.
Techniques to facilitate cognitive learning include:
Conceptual thinking
giving more capable students more responsibility
for their own learning. (ramona writing 3 paragraphs instead of 2)
Aids to facilitate cognitive learning include
1. Frequent assessments of student performance.
2. Movement activities incorporating principles of biomechanics.
3. Utilization of technology: e.g. laser discs, computers and software.
4. Utilization of video recordings of student performance.
Physical education in the Affective Domain
contributes to self-actualization,
self-esteem, and a healthy response to physical activity; contributes to an
appreciation of beauty; contributes to directing one's life toward worthy goals;
emphasizes humanism; affords individuals the chance to enjoy rich social
experiences through play; assists cooperative play; teaches courtesy, fair play,
and good sportsmanship; contributes to humanitarianism.
Teaching methods and techniques that facilitate affective development
include:
Fostering a positive learning environment
Instructors should create a
comfortable, positive learning environment by encouraging and praising effort
and emphasizing respect for others.
Teaching methods and techniques that facilitate affective development
include:
Grouping students appropriately
Instructors should carefully group
students to best achieve equality in ability, age, and personalities.
Teaching methods and techniques that facilitate affective development
include:
Ensuring all students achieve some level of success
Instructors should
design activities that allow students of all ability levels to achieve success and
gain confidence.
Teaching in small groups with enough equipment for everyone is essential.
Practice sessions that are too long or too demanding can cause physical and/or
mental burnout.
Visualizing and breaking the skill down mentally is another way to enhance the
learning of motor movements.
example: Show students how to push the ball down
toward the ground, let it bounce back up, and push it down again. Next, have
students practice dribbling while standing still. Then have them add movement
and practice dribbling. Finally, demonstrate how to control dribbling while being
guarded by another student.
Intrinsic feedback
information received by the athlete as a direct result of
producing a movement through the kinesthetic senses - e.g. feeling from
muscles, joints, and balance.
Extrinsic feedback
information not inherent in the movement itself but which
improves intrinsic feedback (this is also known as augmented feedback).
Negative feedback
helps athletes, whether novice or experienced, become
conscious of their mistakes. They can use this negative feedback to improve their
shortcomings.
Individualized Educational Plans
Specific strategies involve:
• Arranging peer- to- peer activities. For example, if a student is unable to shoot a basketball correctly, train a peer who can to assist the student .
• Grouping students by skill levels.
• Setting up station rotations where diverse exposure to activities is allowed .
• Bringing in the student's resource teacher to assist the student as needed .
ADAPTING FOR STRENGTH, ENDURANCE, AND POWER PROBLEMS
Specific strategies involve: 1. Lowering basketball goals or nets; increasing size of targets .
2. Decreasing throwing distance between partners, serving distance , and distance between bases.
3. Reducing size or weight of projectiles or balls to be thrown.
4. Shortening length and/or reducing weight of bat or other striking apparatus.
5. Playing games in lying or sitting posit ions to lower center of gravity.
6. Selecting a "slow ball" ( one that will not get away too fast) , deflating ball in case it gets away, or attaching a string to the ball for recovery.
7. Reducing playing time an d lowering number of points to win.
8. Using more frequent rest periods .
9. Rotating often or using frequent substitution when needed.
10. U sing mobilization alternatives , such as using scooter boards one inning/period and feet for one inning/period .
ADAPTING FOR BALANCE AND AGILITY PROBLEMS
Specific strategies involve:
1. Using chairs, tables, or bars to help with stability. 2. Having participants learn to utilize eyes optimally for balance skills. 3. Teaching various ways to fall and incorporating dramatics into activities. 4. Using carpeted surfaces. 5. Lowering center of gravity. 6. Having participant extend arms or providing a lightweight pole. 7. Having participant keep as much of his/her body in contact with the surface. 8. Widening base of support (distance between feet). 9. Increasing width of walking parameters
ADAPTING FOR COORDINATION AND ACCURACY
Specific strategies involve:
throwing Activities: using beanbags, yarn or small foam balls, and/or smallersized balls. Catching and Striking Activities: using larger, softer, and lighter balls ; throwing balls to mid- line ; shortening distance ; and reducing speed of balls. Striking/ Kicking Activities: enlarg ing striking surface s , choking up on bats, begin ning with participant successfully striking stationary objects and then progress ing to striking with movement, and increasing target size.
EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY ADAPTATIONS
Decreasing the amount of weight, amount of reps / sets, pace , and/or distance of exercise ; increasing the amount of intervals ; and combining together any of the previous modifications
Activity modification
the first option to achieve maximum participation by simply modifying the type of equipment used (i.e. substitute a yarn ball for a birdie for badminton) or the activity rules . However, keep the activity as close to the original as possible.
Command style
requires that the teacher make all decisions and control all the activities. The _______ is particularly useful in teaching students a skill in a short period of time. Because ________ allows very little student- teacher and student- student interaction, instructors should limit its use to initial demonstrations and explanations.
Reciprocal style
involves the interaction of pairs of students. ________ style provides needed social interaction and allows students to learn from each other through observation. The instructor is also free to interact with the students.
Inclusion style
gives all students the chance to participate in the same task regardless of skill level. Students decide how to best go about practicing and developing their skills. They learn their strengths and weaknesses through trial and error. For example, when learning to throw objects at a target, students can choose the size and type of target and the distance between themselves and the target that best suits their ability level.
Written communication
is particularly effective when communicating large amounts of information. In addition, instructors may choose to provide students with _______instructions for classroom activities to eliminate the need for extended and repeated explanation s
Verbal communication
is traditionally the foundation of teacher- student inter action. is an effective method when explaining skills and concepts. Physical education instructors should try to limit verbal instructions and explanations to allow for maximum physical activity during class time.
Visual communication
is an important, and often underutilized, method of communication in physical education. ________demonstrations are often the most effective way to introduce athletic skills and activities
Important theories and concepts in student motivation include
attribution theory, social learning theory, learned helplessness, and self- efficacy.
Attribution theory
claims that students' perceptions about their educational experience affects their motivation more than the experience itself

describes the processes of explaining events and the behavioral and emotional consequences of those explanations
Social learning theory
asserts that people can learn by observing the behavior of others and the outcomes of those behaviors.

Awareness and expectations of future reward s or punishments can have a major effect on the behaviors that people exhibit.
Learned helplessness
occurs in situations where continued failure may inhibit somebody from trying again and can also lead to many forms of depression

often occurs in environments in which people experience events over which they have , or feel as though they have, no control over what happens to them
Self- efficacy beliefs
determine how people feel, think, motivate themselves , and behave

To build efficacy, the instructor must not only raise the student's belief in his/her c apabilities, but also structure situations that breed success and limit repeated failure.
STRATEGIES THAT PROMOTE COMPETENCE IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES
Some techniques include : mapping, using a checklist of skills broken into steps to check off once students have mastered each level of an activity or skill , and external rewards such as stars or other symbols displayed next to students' names on a posted chart.

older, more developed students are better able to handle competitive situations than younger students. Younger and less skilled students require a cooperative, stress- free environment to maximize learning.
STRATEGIES THAT PROMOTE POSITIVE ATTITUD ES TOWARD FITNESS
Allowing students to explore activities, plan fitness goals, improve personal fitness levels, and generally take responsibility for their own physical fitness
The Reflective Approach to teaching
involves continuous self- monitoring by the teacher , of situations, behaviors, practices, effectiveness, and accomplishments. The instructor reflects upon and evaluates his or her own teaching and determines what changes are necessary.
*A major challenge that physical education instructors face
planning a curriculum that appeals to students of different ability levels and different interests.
*An instructor can prescribe a personal fitness program
After assessing an individual's fitness level
For successful fitness programs
formulating new goals changes the personal fitness program to accomplish those new goals.
For unsuccessful fitness programs
changing the goals, particularly if the goals were unrealistic, is appropriate for the individual to make progress and succeed. In add ition, analyzing positive and negative reinforcements may identify barriers preventing an individual's success in his/her personal fitness program. Incorporating periodic, positive rewards for advancing can provide positive reinforcement and encouragement .
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...