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The Industrial Revolution

Terms in this set (43)

• Stable government (since 1688)
◦ Has already had its revolution/civil war so already have the people already have the government and power that they want
‣ Not going to rebel
• A large number of colonies
◦ Raw materials
◦ Markets
• Legacy of the Scientific Revolution
◦ Patent laws
‣ A legal document that gives you ownership over that device. It was important because it motivated people to make new products and innovate
◦ They were the country that philosophers would look up to as an ideal enlightened government
• Stable financial markets
◦ Easiest to borrow money than everywhere else in the world
‣ Allows you to open and create more things because you can borrow money because you have to put a lot out at first
• Relatively dense population
◦ Makes it easier to transport goods throughout the nation
• Unscathed by Napoleonic Wars
◦ They were able to come out of the war with France without much of the fighting to be on their soil (because on an island and have a great navy)
• The Enclosure movement
◦ If you lived in a town or a village, then there would be a local lord and a lot of land that you would work on a specific section on, but it technically belonged to the lord even though it was "communally owned"
◦ But then the government made the communal land into private land
‣ Agricultural production goes up
‣ Created large landless labor force
‣ Since people can't buy land, then they cant go into agricultural work, so they had to turn to factory working
• The invention of the flying shuttle made it possible to weave faster on a loom.
◦ This created shortages of yarn until James Hargreaves's spinning jenny allowed spinners to produce yarn in greater quantities.
◦ Edmund Cartwright's loom, powered by water, allowed the weaving of cloth to catch up with the spinning of yarn. It was now more efficient to bring workers to the machines and organize their labor collectively in factories located next to rivers and streams (their sources of power)
• The cotton industry was then pushed to greater heights of productivity by the invention of the steam engine.
◦ In the 1760s, James Watt, built an engine powered by steam that could pump water from mines 3 times as quickly as previous engines; allowing for more coal to be extracted from the mines.
◦ In 1782, Watt developed a rotary engine that could turn a shaft and thus drive machinery.
‣ Steam power could now be applied to spinning and weaving cotton, and because they were fired by coal, these steam engines could be located anywhere.
• The boost given to cotton textile production by these technological changes was readily apparent.
◦ In 1760, Britain had imported 2.5 million pounds of cotton, which was farmed out to cottage industries.
◦ In 1787, the British imported 22 million pounds of cotton; most of it was spun on machines.
◦ By 1840, 366 million pounds of cotton, now Britain's most important product, were being imported.
‣ By this time, most cotton industry employees worked in factories, and British cotton goods were sold everywhere in the world.
• In 1815, Belgium, France, and the German states had experienced some developments similar to those of Britain in the 18th, but not in the 1770s and 1780s because they lacked certain advantages that had made Britain's Industrial Revolution possible.
◦ Lack of good roads and problems with river transit made transportation difficult.
◦ Customs barriers along state boundaries increased the costs and prices of goods.
◦ Continental businessmen were generally less enterprising than their British counterparts and tended to adhere to traditional business attitudes, including an unwillingness to take risks in investment.
• Lack of technical knowledge was initially a major obstacle to industrialization. But the Continental countries possessed an advantage here; they could simply borrow British techniques and practices.
◦ Gradually, the Continent achieved technological independence as local people learned all the skills their British teachers had to offer.
◦ Continental countries, especially France and the German states began to establish a wide range of technical schools to train engineers and mechanics.
• Governments in most of the Continental countries were accustomed to playing a significant role in economic affairs. Furthering the development of industrialization was a logical extension of that attitude.
◦ For example, the governments gave grants to inventors and provided funds to build roads and railroads.
• Joint-stock investment banks pooled the savings of thousands of small and large investors, creating a supply of capital that could then be plowed back into industry. These investments were essential to Continental industrialization.
◦ By starting with less expensive machines, the British had been able to industrialize largely through the private capital of successful individuals who reinvested their profits. On the Continent, advanced industrial machines necessitated large amounts of capital; joint-stock industrial banks provided it.
• Early industrial workers faced wretched working conditions.
◦ Work shifts ranged from 12 to 16 hours a day, six days a week, with a half hour for lunch and dinner.
◦ There was no security of employment and no minimum wage.
◦ The worst conditions were in the cotton mills, where temperatures were especially debilitating.
◦ Mills were also dirty, dusty, and unhealthy.
◦ Conditions in the coal mines were also harsh.
‣ Although steam-powered engines were used to lift coal from the mines to the top, inside the mines, men still bore the burden of digging the coal out while horses, mules, women, and children hauled coal carts on rails to the lift.
• Both children and women worked in large numbers in early factories and mines.
◦ Children had been an important part of the family economy in preindustrial times, working in the fields or carding and spinning wool at home.
‣ The owners of cotton factories found child labor very helpful. Children had an especially delicate touch as spinners of cotton. Their smaller size made it easier for them to crawl under machines to gather loose cotton. Children were more easily trained to do factory work.
• Children represented a cheap source of labor.
◦ In 1821, about half of the British population was under twenty years of age. Hence, children made up an abundant supply of labor, and they were paid only about one-sixth to one-third of what a man was paid.
• By 1830, women and children provided two-thirds of the cotton industry's labor.
• Under the Factory Act of 1833, however, which prohibited employment of children under the age of nine and restricted the working hours of those under eighteen, the number of children employed declined.
◦ The new law did not end child labor, however, as many parents needed the income of working children to support the family. As the number of children employed declined, their places were taken by women, who came to dominate the labor forces of the early factories.
• Men were expected to be responsible for the primary work obligations, while women assumed daily control of the family and performed low-paying jobs such as laundry work that could be done in the home.
◦ Domestic industry made it possible for women to continue their contributions to family survival.
• In the first half of the 19th, the pitiful conditions found in the slums, mines, and factories of the Industrial Revolution gave rise to efforts for change.
◦ One of them was a movement known as socialism.
‣ The term eventually became associated with a Marxist analysis of human society, but early socialism was largely the product of intellectuals who believed in the equality of all people and wanted to replace competition with cooperation in industry.
‣ To later socialists, especially the followers of Karl Marx, such ideas were merely impractical dreams, and they contemptuously labeled these theorists utopian socialists.
◦ Robert Owen, a British cotton manufacturer, was one such utopian socialist. He believed that humans would show their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment.
‣ At New Lanark in Scotland, he transformed a squalid factory town into a flourishing, healthy community. But when he tried to create such a cooperative community at New Harmony, Indiana, in the United States in the 1820s, fighting within the community eventually destroyed his dream.
• Another movement for change came through the formation of labor organizations to gain decent wages and working conditions.
◦ Known as trade unions, these new associations were formed by skilled workers in a number of new industries, including ironworkers and coal miners.
‣ Some trade unions went on strike to win improvements for the members of their trades.
‣ The largest and most successful of these unions in Britain was the Amalgamated Society of Engineers, formed in 1851. Its provision of generous unemployment benefits in return for a small weekly payment was precisely the kind of practical gains that the trade unions sought.
• The first major change in industrial development after 1870 was the substitution of steel for iron.
◦ New methods for shaping steel made it useful in the construction of lighter, smaller, and faster machines and engines as well as railways, ships, and armaments.
• Electricity was a major new form of energy that could be easily converted into other forms, such as heat, light, and motion, and moved relatively effortlessly through space by means of transmitting wires.
◦ In the 1870s, the first commercially practical generators of electrical current were developed, and by 1910, hydroelectric power stations and coal-fired steam-generating plants enabled homes and factories in whole neighborhoods to be tied in to a single, common source of power.
◦ Electricity spawned a number of inventions.
‣ The light- bulb, developed independently by the American Thomas Edison and the Briton Joseph Swan, permitted homes and cities to be illuminated by electric lights.
‣ Electricity also transformed the factory.
• Conveyor belts, cranes, machines, and machine tools could all be powered by electricity and located anywhere.
◦ Thanks to electricity, all countries could now enter the industrial age.
• A revolution in communications began when Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876 and Guglielmo Marconi sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic in 1901.
• The development of the internal combustion engine, fired by oil and gasoline, provided a new source of power in transportation and gave rise to ocean liners as well as airplanes and automobiles.
◦ In 1900, world production stood at 9,000 cars, but an American, Henry Ford, revolutionized the automotive industry with the mass production of the Model T. By 1916, Ford's factories were producing 735,000 cars a year
◦ In 1903, at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first flight in a fixed-wing airplane. The first regular passenger air service was established in 1919.
• During the course of the 19th, working-class organizations persisted in the belief that women should remain at home to bear and nurture children and not be allowed in the industrial workforce.
◦ Working-class men argued that keeping women out of the factories would ensure the moral and physical well-being of families. In reality, however, if their husbands were unemployed, women had to do low-wage work or labor part-time in sweatshops to support their families.
• The Second Industrial Revolution opened the door to new jobs for women.
◦ The development of larger industrial plants and the expansion of government services created a variety of service or white-collar jobs. The increased demand for white-collar workers at relatively low wages coupled with a shortage of male workers led employers to hire women.
‣ The expansion of government services opened opportunities for women to be secretaries and telephone operators and to take jobs in health and social services. Compulsory education necessitated more teachers, and the development of modern hospital services opened jobs for nurses.
◦ Many of the new white-collar jobs were routine and, except for teaching and nursing, required few skills beyond basic literacy. These jobs had distinct advantages for many women.
• For some middle-class women, the new jobs offered freedom from the domestic patterns expected of them. Since women did not receive an education comparable to that of men, they were limited in the careers they could pursue. Thus, they found it easier to fill the jobs at the lower end of middle-class occupations.
• Most of the new white-collar jobs, however, were filled by working-class women who saw the job as an opportunity to escape from the physical labor of the lower-class world.
Main Points:
• In the 2nd half of rev, governments were forced to intervene with urban areas about housing and health
◦ So they created boards of health and enforced rules
• Pubic health went up from clean water
• Electric heaters allowed people to take hot bath
• The government constructed cheap housing and rented them at cheap prices because they found that most people weren't living in good conditions, so more pubic ownership than private
• They did this because socialism was on the rise

Long Version:
• Urbanization was an important consequences of industrialization and the population explosion of the 19th.
◦ More and more people came to live in cities.
‣ By 1914, urban residents had increased to 80 percent of the population in Britain, 45 percent in France, 60 percent in Germany, and 30 percent in eastern Europe.
◦ The size of cities also expanded dramatically, especially in industrialized countries.
‣ Between 1800 and 1900, London's population grew from 960,000 to 6.5 million and Berlin's from 172,000 to 2.7 million.
• Urban populations grew faster than the general population because of the migration from rural areas to cities
◦ Cities grew faster in the 2nd 1/2 of 19th because health and living conditions were improving as reformers and city officials used new technology to improve urban life.
‣ In the 1840s, a number of urban reformers had pointed to filthy living conditions as the primary cause of epidemic diseases. Following the advice of reformers, city governments set up boards of health to boost the quality of housing and instituted regulations requiring all new buildings to have running water and internal drainage systems.
• Essential to the public health was the ability to bring in clean water and to expel sewage.
◦ The problem of fresh water was solved by a system of dams and reservoirs that stored the water and aqueducts and tunnels that carried it from the countryside to the city and into homes.
◦ The treatment of sewage was also improved by laying mammoth underground pipes that carried raw sewage far from the city for disposal.
• Middle-class reformers also focused on the housing needs of the working class.
◦ Overcrowded, disease-ridden slums were viewed as dangerous not only to physical health but also to the political and moral health of the entire nation.
◦ V. A. Huber, the foremost early German housing reformer, thought that good housing was a prerequisite for stable family life, and without stable family life, society would fall apart.
• Early efforts to attack the housing problem emphasized the middle-class' liberal belief in the power of private, or free, enterprise. As cities continued to grow in number and size, by the 1880s governments concluded that private enterprise could not solve the housing crisis.
◦ In 1890, a British law empowered local town councils to construct cheap housing for the working classes. More and more, governments, like Germany, were stepping into areas of activity that they would not have touched earlier.
Main Ideas:
Bigger middle class
◦ Upper middle class-like upper class
◦ Middle class-shop keeper
◦ Lower middle class- sucessful laborers
• Upper class
◦ 5% owned 40% of the land
• Lower class- unskilled labors
• Wages increased and it was easier to get good

Long Version:
• At the top of European society stood a wealthy elite (5% of pop.), which controlling between 30 and 40 percent of the wealth.
• The middle classes included a variety of groups.
◦ In the 19th, landed aristocrats had joined with the most successful industrialists, bankers, and merchants (wealthy upper middle class) to form a new elite. Members of this elite, whether aristocratic or from the middle class, assumed leadership roles in government bureaucracies and military.
‣ Marriage also united the two groups. Daughters of business tycoons gained titles, while aristocratic heirs gained new sources of cash.
◦ Below the upper middle class was a group that included lawyers, doctors, and members of the civil service, as well as business managers, engineers, architects, accountants, and chemists benefiting from industrial expansion.
◦ Beneath this middle group was a lower middle class of small shopkeepers, traders, small manufacturers, and prosperous peasants.
◦ Between the lower middle class and the lower classes were new groups of white-collar workers who were the product of the Second Industrial Revolution: the salespeople, bookkeepers, bank tellers, telephone operators, and secretaries.
‣ Though often paid little more than skilled laborers, these white-collar workers were committed to middle-class ideals.
• The middle classes shared a certain lifestyle and values that dominated much of nineteenth-century society.
◦ The European middle classes believed in hard work, which they viewed as open to everyone and guaranteed to have positive results.
‣ They were also regular churchgoers who believed in the good conduct associated with traditional Christian morality.
‣ They were concerned with propriety, the right way of doing things, which gave rise to an incessant stream of books aimed at the middle-class market.
• Below the middle classes on the social scale were the working classes (80% of pop.)
◦ Many of them were landholding peasants, agricultural laborers, and sharecroppers
◦ The urban working class consisted of many different groups, including skilled artisans in such traditional trades as cabinetmaking, printing, and the making of jewelry, along with semiskilled laborers, who included carpenters, bricklayers, and many factory workers.
◦ At the bottom of the urban working class stood the largest group of workers, the unskilled laborers.
‣ They included day laborers, who worked irregularly for very low wages, and large numbers of domestic servants, most of whom were women.
Main Ideas:
• Women were economically and legally dependent on men because they went paid enough enough, so they had to marry in order to support themselves
◦ Marriage was the most honorable thing that a women could do
• Women started to fight for their rights for education, diverse, and property rights
• They stopped having less children and having more abortions and took back control over their body

Super long Version:
• In the 19th, women remained legally inferior, economically dependent, and largely defined by family and household roles. Many women still aspired to the ideal of femininity popularized by writers and poets.
◦ This traditional characterization of the sexes, based on socially defined gender roles, was elevated to the status of universal male and female attributes in the 19th, due largely to the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the family.

• In the 19th, marriage was viewed as the only honorable career available to women. Although the middle class glorified the ideal of domesticity, for most women marriage was a matter of economic necessity.
◦ The lack of meaningful work and the lower wages paid to women for their work made it difficult for single women to earn a living. Most women chose to marry.
• The most significant development in the modern family was the decline in the number of offspring born to the average woman.
◦ Although some historians attribute the decline to more widespread use of male withdrawal before ejaculation, others have emphasized female control of family size through abortion and even infanticide or abandonment.
‣ That a change in attitude occurred was apparent in the development of a movement to increase awareness of birth control methods.
• Europe's first birth control clinic, founded by Dr. Aletta Jacob, opened in Amsterdam in 1882.
• The family was the central institution of middle-class life.
◦ Men provided the family income while women focused on household and child care.
‣ The use of domestic servants in many middle-class homes, made possible by an abundant supply of cheap labor, reduced the amount of time middle-class women had to spend on household work.
‣ At the same time, by having fewer children, mothers could devote more time to child care and domestic leisure.
• The middle-class family fostered an ideal of togetherness through holiday traditions.
• Women in working-class families were more accustomed to hard work.
◦ Daughters were expected to work until they married; even after marriage, they often did piecework at home to help support the family.
◦ For the children of the working classes, childhood was over by the age of nine or ten when they became apprentices or were employed in odd jobs.
• Between 1890 and 1914, however, family patterns among the working class began to change.
◦ High-paying jobs in heavy industry and improvements in the standard of living made it possible for working-class families to depend on the income of husbands and the wages of grown children.
◦ By the early 2000s, some working-class mothers could afford to stay at home, following the pattern of middle-class women.
‣ At the same time, working-class families also aspired to buy new consumer products, such as sewing machines, clocks, bicycles, and cast-iron stoves.

• In the 1830s, a number of women in the United States and Europe, who worked together in several reform movements, argued for the right of women to divorce and own property.
◦ They didn't get the right to own property until 1870 in Britain, 1900 in Germany, and 1907 in France.
• Divorce and property rights were only a beginning for the women's movement, however.
◦ Some middle- and upper- middle-class women gained access to higher education, while others sought entry into occupations dominated by men.
‣ Teaching was the 1st to become dominated by women
‣ As medical training was largely closed to women, they sought alternatives through the development of nursing.
• Nursing pioneers included the British nurse Florence Nightingale, whose efforts during the Crimean War, along with those of Clara Barton in the American Civil War, transformed nursing into a profession of trained, middle-class ''women in white.''
• By the 1840s and 1850s, the movement for women's rights had entered the political arena with the call for equal political rights.
◦ Many feminists believed that the right to vote was the key to all other reforms to improve the position of women. Suffragists had one basic aim: the right of women to full citizenship in the nation-state.
‣ Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters, Christabel and Sylvia, founded the Women's Social and Political Union in 1903, which enrolled mostly middle and upper-class women.
‣ The members of Pankhurst's organization realized the value of the media and used unusual publicity stunts to call attention to their demands and were derisively labeled ''suffragettes'' by male politicians.
• Before World War I, the demands for women's rights were being heard throughout Europe and the United States, although only in Norway and some American states did women actually receive the right to vote before 1914.
◦ It would take the dramatic upheaval of World War I before male-dominated governments capitulated on this basic issue.
• In many countries, women supported peace movements.
◦ Bertha von Suttner became head of the Austrian Peace Society and protested against the growing arms race of the 1890s.
◦ She was but one example of the ''new women'' who were becoming more prominent at the turn of the century. These women rejected traditional feminine roles and sought new freedom outside the house hold and roles other than those of wife and mother.
◦ Lower-class women also took up the cause of peace.
‣ A group of women workers marched in Vienna in 1911 and demanded an end to armaments, to the means of murder, and we want these millions to be spent on the needs of the people.
Main Ideas:
Bigger middle class
◦ Upper middle class-like upper class
◦ Middle class-shop keeper
◦ Lower middle class- sucessful laborers
• Upper class
◦ 5% owned 40% of the land
• Lower class- unskilled labors
• Wages increased and it was easier to get good

Long Version:
• Universal education was a product of the mass society of the late 19th and early 2000s.
◦ Education in the early 19th was primarily for the elite or the wealthier middle class, but after 1870, most Western governments began to offer at least primary education to both boys and girls between the ages of six and twelve.
◦ States also assumed responsibility for better training of teachers by making teacher-training schools.
◦ By the beginning of the twentieth century, many European states, especially in northern and western Europe, provided state-financed primary schools, salaried and trained teachers, and free, compulsory elementary education.
• Western nations made this commitment to mass education because of industrialization.
◦ The new firms of the Second Industrial Revolution demanded skilled labor.
‣ Both boys and girls with an elementary education had new possibilities of jobs beyond their villages or small towns.
‣ Mass education furnished the trained workers industrialists needed and for most students, elementary education led to apprenticeship and a job.
• The chief motive for mass education, however, was political. With the expansion of suffrage came a need for a more educated electorate.
◦ In parts of Europe where the Catholic Church remained in control of education, implementing a mass education system reduced the influence of the church over the electorate.
◦ Mass compulsory education instilled patriotism and nationalized the masses, providing an opportunity for even greater national integration.
‣ As people lost their ties to local regions and even to religion, nationalism supplied a new faith.
‣ The use of a single national language created greater national unity than loyalty to a ruler did.
◦ Compulsory elementary education created a demand for teachers, and most of them were women.
‣ Females were paid lower salaries, in itself a considerable incentive for governments to encourage the establishment of teacher-training institutes for women, which would later become teh first women collages.
• The most immediate result of mass education was an increase in literacy.
◦ In Germany, Great Britain, France, and the Scandinavian countries, adult illiteracy was virtually eliminated by 1900.
◦ Where there was less schooling, adult illiteracy rates were 79 percent in Serbia, 78 percent in Romania, and 79 percent in Russia.
Main Ideas:
• With organized work came organized leisure
◦ Could only leisure when they weren't at work
‣ Led to weekends and a break in the summer
• New technologies led to new form of leisure
◦ Transportation also led to people to have access to activities outside of their general area
• Organized team sports also emerged and created a new area of business: sports

Long version:
• With the Industrial Revolution came new forms of leisure.
◦ Work and leisure became opposites as leisure came to be viewed as what people do for fun when they are not at work.
◦ The new leisure hours created by the industrial system (evening hours after work, weekends, and later a week or two in the summer) largely determined the contours of the new mass leisure.
• New technology created novel experiences for leisure, such as the Ferris wheel at amusement parks, while the introduction of subways and streetcars in the 1880s meant that even the working classes were no longer dependent on neighborhood facilities but could make their way to athletic games, amusement parks, and dance halls. Railroads could take people to the beaches on weekends.
• Team sports had also developed into another important form of mass leisure by the late 19th.
◦ Unlike the old rural games, which were spontaneous and often chaotic activities, the new sports were strictly organized with sets of rules and officials to enforce them.
◦ The development of urban transportation systems made possible the construction of stadiums where thousands could attend, making mass spectator sports into a big business.
****If work gets organized, then leisure become organized too