29 terms

Holt Environmental Science Chapter 3 Hug Hs

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geosphere
the mostly solid, rocky part of Earth; extends from the center of the core to the surface of the crust
crust
the thin and solid outermost layer of the Earth above the mantle
mantle
the layer of rock between the Earth's crust and core
core
the central part of the Earth below the mantle
asthenosphere
the solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere; made of mantle rock the flows very slowly, which allows tectonic plates to move on top of it
lithosphere
the solid, outer layer of the Earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of mantle
tectonic plate
a block of lithosphere that consists of the crust and the rigid, outermost part of mantle; also called lithospheric plate
plate boundaries
Places where two or more tectonic plates meet
convection
the movement of matter due to differences in density that are caused by temperature variations; can result in the transfer of energy as heat
fault
A break in the earth's crust
focus
The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
epicenter
the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
rock cycle
the series of processes that change one type of rock into another type of rock
volcano
A vent or fissure in the Earth's surface through which magma and gases are expelled
earthquake
vibrations produced when rocks break along a fault
Richter scale
a measure of the largest ground movement that occurs during an earthquake with a logarithmic scale where each is number indicates a wave of 10 time larger than that before it and the energy is 30 times larger.
transform fault
a strike-slip fault occurring at the boundary between two plates of the earth's crust.
divergent boundary
A plate boundary where two plates move away from each other.
convergent boundary
A tectonic plate boundary where two plates collide, come together, or crash into each other.
island arc
a chain of volcanic islands formed at an ocean-ocean convergent boundary
extrusive rocks
rocks formed from molten lava that hardens on the earth's surface (cools quickly)
igneous
A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface.
intrusive rocks
rocks that form from magma below the surface
sedimentary
rock that is formed from layers of sediments that are pressed and squeezed together until it hardens
metamorphic
Rocks changed by intense heat or extreme pressure
magma
A molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle
chemical weathering
occurs when chemical reactions dissolve the minerals in rocks or change them into different minerals
lava
Liquid magma that reaches the surface; also the rock formed when liquid lava hardens.
erosion
condition in which the earth's surface is worn away by the action of water and wind
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