Terms in this set (92)
When is the neural tube formed?
by the 4th week
What vesicle is the most anterior portion of the brain?
Forebrain/ largest part=
What is the prosencephalon comprised of?
What vesicle connects pons and cerebellum with cerebral hemispheres?
Hindbrain/most inferior portion =
What vesicle joins to the spinal cord?
When should the rhombencephalon disappear?
after 8 weeks
When will you ID the rhombencephalon?
What does the rhombencephalon become?
the 4th ventricle
When do the secondary brain vesicles form?
1 weeks time
How many secondary vesicles develop rapidly?
What are the 5 secondary vesicles?
telencephalon is part of the prosencephalon which becomes what?
cerebral hemispheres aka cerebrum
Where does the greatest change occur with 2 swelling projections (Mickey mouse appearance)?
Diencephalon is part of the prosencephalon and includes what?
thalamus and hypothalamus
What portion relays sensory information between brain regions and controls autonomic functions of peripheral nervous system?
What vesicle never splits?
What connects hindbrain and forebrain?
What is the mesencephalon termed in the adult brain?
tectum and tegmentum
What controls unconscious functions?
What does the rhombencephalon split into?
What does the metacephalon consist of?
-upper part of 4th ventricle
What does the Mylencephalon consist of?
-lower part of 4th ventricle
What duct connects the 3rd and 4th ventricle?
aqueduct of sylvius
Area where the anterior, occipital, and temporal horns join
Atrium/Trigone contains what?
glomus (thickest portion of chorioid plexus)
-One of the larger basal ganglia
-Region of gray matter adj. to margins of lat vents
-Lateral borders of the frontal horns anterior to thalamus
-3 parts (head, body, tail)
-Group of vascular structures in 3rd and 4th ventricles and portion of lat ventricles
-Regulates intraventricular pressure by secreting and absorbing fluid
-Develops CSF and fills CNS cavities
-Maintains pressure in ventricular systems
Where SHOULDN'T the choroid plexus extend into?
frontal or occipital portion of lateral ventricles
Thickest portion of choroid plexus
-Nerve fibers connecting RT and LT brain
-large band of white fibers
-allows for communication between 2 cerebral hemispheres
-Forms roof of 3rd ventricle
LATERAL opening in 4th vent connecting to CM
Foramen of Luschka
opening in the ROOF of 4th ventricle connecting to CM
Foramen of Magendie
Connection between lateral and 3rd ventricle
Foramen of Monroe
Foramen of Monroe AKA
-infolding of cortex that increase surface area
-convolutes surface of brain
-Grooves on the surface of brain
-Depressions in gray matter
-Periventricular tissue with in the caudate nucleus
-Highly vascular (Bleeds easily)
When does the germinal matrix begin to regress, until it cesses to exist in FULL TERM infant?
during 3rd week of gestation
Where do bleeds most often occur in germinal matrix?
Brain tissue bulging INTO 3rd ventricle connecting thalamus
What ventricle is the thalamic bodies separated by?
What is the one space in the brain with CSF?
Massa Intermedia aka
What covers the brain?
-What is located beneath the ependymal
-Site of hemorrhage from germinal matrix
Inner layer that directly covers the brain
Middle layer covering the brain
Outer layer in direct contact with the inner calvarium
-Part of the dura mater
-Separates cerebrum and cerebellum
-Extension off fall cerebri
Ovoid structure on either side of 3rd vent
Cavity containing CSF
Membrane lining ventricles
What lobe is responsible for voluntary muscles, and Broca's area (speech center)
What lobe is responsible for site?
What lobe is responsible for pain receptors, touch, and temperature
What lobe is responsible for sound and smell?
soft spots/ spaces between bones in the skull=
What is the best fontanel for imaging?
When does the posterior fontanel close?
about 2-6 months
What is the sphenoid fontanel used for?
What fontanel is used to look at the cerebellum?
joints between skull bones that allow for an increase in head size as brain grows
suture in midline skull between posterior and anterior fontanel
Suture perpendicular to sagital suture between frontal and parietal bones
Suture from mastoid portion of temporal lobe to posterior sagittal suture
What is located with in each cerebral hemisphere and is divided into frontal horn, body, occipital horn, and temporal horn
ventricles (Lat, 3rd, 4th)
-2 hemispheres connected by corpus callous
-Consists of white and gray matter
-White= inner, Gray= outer (cortex)
-Cerebellum contains both gray and white matter
Larger infoldings of the cerebrum
5 fissures in the brain
What fissure is in the middle of the brain?
What fissure splits the upper and lower brain?
Lateral aka Sylvian (between temporal and frontal lobes)
between parietal and occipital lobes
Transverse fissure image
Central/Rolondo fissure image
How will the sulci appear from 20-25 weeks in infants?
smooth cerebral cortex
When will the sulci be visualized?
25 weeks to term
Normal ventricle sizes from 20 weeks-term?
</= 1 cm
Normal 3rd ventricle size
Normal 4th ventricle size
When does the CSP begin to close?
CSP is seen in what % of premies? What % of all newborns?
62% of premies
42% of all newborns
When should the CSP be completely closed by?
3-6 months of life
smaller more posterior section of CSP
When does the cavum vergae begin to close?
during 6th month of gestation
-Ring of vessels
-Supplies majority of blood to brain
-Encloses opticchiasma/pituitary stalk
-Prone to Berry aneurysms
-Where you'll find MCA
Circle of willis
Longest branch that supplies the most blood to cerebral hemispheres
Blood is drained from the brain via ______ systemic routes
2 (systemic system , dural sinus)
Systemic systems include what?
spinal cord and medulla
Dural sinuses go into confluence then drain through what?