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a hard disk drive or HDD, is always given a letter. Sometimes this drive/letter combination is called a volume
master file table (MFT)
the MFT deeps track of where all the files are located on the disk, and it also contains all the extra small files Windows creates within the table itself
will contain the entire OS and all your applications. The actual size of this partition depends upon how many apps you load and their size. The second partition, whichcan be any size, is reserved for all your data files, music and movies, and downloads
a sector can only hold so much memory (4kb) before it is split into contiguous sectors
the NTFS file system has an added security feature. An encrypted file cant be opened or changed by anyone except those logged-in users with proper permissions
one of two common techniques used in tape recording (back-ups). It records data on tracks that are parallel to the edge of the tape
another technique for backing up files. A stationary recording head is held perpendicular to the tape as it is pulled past
a rotating head is used to record the tracks at an angle to the tape as it is pulled past. This results in grater relative speed between the recording head and the tape
quarter inch cartridge (QIC)
one of the older backup technologies.the original cartridge was the size of todays VHS tapes
the original travan cartridge had a 400MB capacity. The travan is backward compatible with older QIC tape formats
digital audio tape (DAT)
a popular tape backup format in use today. Orginally designed by sony for recording audio, this technology was quickly converted to computer use
super digital linear tape (SDLT)
these drives are generally larger and more expensive than their DAT counterpart. However, they can store an enomous amount of data, hundreds of gigabytes, and they are especially popular with minicomputers and mainframes.
the full backup records every file that is to be backed up. It takes the longest to record because every file is copied. It also requires the greatest storage capacity for the same reason. However, it requires the shortest time to restore because everything is on a single tape
it shortens the record time by backing up only those files that have changed since the last full or incremental backup. The restoration process can take a long time and may involve several tapes
a good compromise between the full and incremental backup. It records only those files that have changed since the last full backup. Therefore, it takes less time to record than a full backup, although more than an incremental backup
the driver can be thought of as an interpreter from hardware to windows and vice versa
microsofts windows hardware quality labs (WHQL)
manufacturers could submit a driver to WHQL for testing and evaluation
a driver with a digital signature representing that it has been checked and tested by microsoft
a system that keeps track of the updates that are already installed and regularly checks for new updates that may be available
a technique used by the OS to take advantage of extra hard drive space. A sort of hard drive extension for your RAM
windows typically sets aside a portion of your hard drive for the paging file, which is the actual file that contains virtual memory
a process that involves a CD or two or a special hidden partition on the hard drive that is used to get your computer system back to the first day condition
found in the startup menu. This mode will allow you to uninstall devices and applications, and perform basic surgery on the system
last known good configuration
this option launches windows with the registry settings that were used the last time windows launched properly
the profile includes everything on your desktop, any GUI personalizations, and network settings, and everything in you're my documents folder
files and settings transfer wizard
a tool used for making a backup of your profile in which you can reload the OS, copy that saved profile back in, and it will look like nothing has changed at all
universal serial bus (USB)
it brings plug and play to the peripheral world. A single USB channel can handle up to 127 devices. USB allows for hot pluggable peripherals
a problem with parallel cables where all 8 bits are transmitted at the same instant, they may not be received simultaneously
a problem with parallel cables where the waveform tends to overshoot as the logic levels change between 1 and 0
interrupt request (IRQ)
used to refer to either the act of interrupting the bus lines used to signal an interrupt, or the interrupt input lines on a Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC). The interrupt request level (IRQL) is the priority of an interrupt request
institute of electrical and electronics engineers (IEEE-1394)
a serial bus interface standard for high-speed communications and isochronous real-time data transfer, frequently used by personal computers, as well as in digital audio, digital video, automotive, and aeronautics applications
is the number of times per second the analog signal is sampled as it is converted
analog to digital converter (ADC)
a device that looks at the sine wave at periodic intervals, which are set by the sampling frequency. The ADC checks the amplitude fo the signal and assigns that level a binary value, then checks it again
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