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Martin Luther

German monk and leader of the Protestant

Roger Williams

He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State...first free religious state...set up first Baptist church

Nathaniel Bacon

Leader of Bacon's Rebellion. LEd settlers against Indians and Jamestown.

John Smith

Helped found and govern Jamestown.

George Grenville

British Prime Minister Architect of the Sugar Act; his method of taxation and crackdown on colonial smuggling were widely disliked by Americans. He passed the Stamp Act arguing that colonists received virtual representation in Parliament

Henry the Navigator

Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa

Bartholomeu Dias

Sailed to the southern tip of Africa

Hernan Cortes

Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico

Ponce de Leon

sailed and discovered Florida and claimed it for Spain.

Sir Walter Raleigh

Englishman who tried to start the colony of Roanoke in America. It failed and is known as "
The Lost Colony."

Virginia Dare

first English child born in America

William Penn

Founder of Pennsylvania

John Berkeley

In (1664) New Jersey was given to him and George Carteret by the king

Cecilius Calvert

estabished Maryland

Sir Edmund Andros

Governor of the Dominion of New England

Jonathon Edwards

powerful preacher during Great Awakening,

John Wesley

Founded the Methodist church

William Pitt

British leader in the French and Indian War. Brought the Seven Years' War to an end

Marco Polo

Merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade

Vasco da Gama

Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.

Christopher Columbus

Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China


aztec emperor invaded by hernando cortes and his forces

Francisco de Coronado

1540, From Spain, Discovered North America's southwest...Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas

John White

leader of Roanoke

Elizabeth I

made Protestantism the dominant religion in England by 1558...Queen of England

John Rolfe

He brought tobacco to Jamestown, which saved this colony from failing, and he also was married to Pocahontas

William Bradford

The man chosen to be governor of Plymouth colony over 30 times., Governor of Plymouth Colony...decided to have the first Thanksgiving


Wampanoag chief was known to settlers as King Philip

Peter Stuyvesant

Governor of the Dutch colony of New Netherland

George Carteret

Co-founded New Jersey with John Berkeley

James Ogethorpe

founded georgia

Benjamin Franklin

American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove.

George Whitefield

Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."

Edward Braddock

English Commander who was killed at the Battle of Dusquesne during the French and Indian War


Native American leader who fought the british


A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture.

Protestant Reformation

a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches

Columbian Exchange

A global exchange of people, plants, animals, technology, and disease form Americas to Europe. Began by Christopher Columbus. brought a commercial revolution and mercantilism.

Treaty of Tordesillas

Agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.

Susan Constant

one of the three ships that brought the Jamestown settlers to America


one of the three ships that brought the Jamestown settlers to America


one of the three ships that brought the Jamestown settlers to America

common store system

It was a system in which all found was placed in a common store house. Much like socialism. Any who would not work, would not eat., What system ended in Jamestown by John Smith in 1608

starving time

Jamestown winter of 1609 and 1610

Bacon's Rebellion

nathaniel bacon rebelled because he wanted the governor to fight indians but governor refused so bacon rebelled...results in Jamestown being burned to the ground; Vrigina


a group of Anglicans in England who wanted to purify their church of Catholic ways


People who wanted to have a separate, or different church. Also known as Pilgrims.

Mayflower Compact

1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.

Pequot War

The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.

King Phillips War

War between the Native American tribes of New England and British colonists that took place from 1675-1676. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. The chief of the Wampanoags, King Philip lead the natives. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites.

Toleration Act

This guaranteed religious freedom to almost all Protestants in England under the monarchy of William and Mary.


an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by establishing a favorable balance of trade

Navigation Acts

Laws that England put on the colonies to ensure that America would only trade with England. England profited tremendously from these laws. The basis of these laws was mercantilism.

Dominion of New England

headed by Sir Edmund Andros, imposed by London to enforce English Navigation Laws

Glorious Revolution

Overthrow of King James II (afraid of Catholic dynasty) that ended the Dominion and established William and Mary as the new leaders.

Salutary neglect

An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies

Triangular trade

A three way system of trade...Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa

middle passage

the journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas, so called because it was the middle portion of the triangular trade route...nearly 20% of slaves died on each ship

Stono Rebellion

In 1739...20 slaves attacked plantation owners in South Carolina, leading to the tightening of already harsh slave laws.

Salem Witch Trials

1629 outbreak of witchcraft accusations... marked by an atmosphere of fear, hysteria and stress...100 tried as witches...20 people killed...2 dogs killed...150 imprisoned


this movement spread knowledge, reason and science that could improve the society

Great Awakening

Religious revival in the American colonies ...Baptist and Methodist dominations grew and Puritain and Anglican congregations declined

Albany Plan of Union

proposal by Benjamin Franklin to create one government for the 13 colonies...every colony voted against it.

Battle of the Monongahela

Braddock took 1400 British troops to Ft. Duquesne...British used European style fighting...The French and Indians were hiding behind trees ambushed the British...Braddock was killed...Washington took command

Battle of Quebec

A battle between Gen. Wolfe and Marquis de Montcalm which occurred at Quebec. Wolfe's forces surprised the larger forces of Marquis and defeated them. Both Wolfe and Marquis died in battle. Turning point of the French and Indian War...

Treaty of Paris of 1763

ended the French and Indian War...French gives up Canada and land east of the Mississippi and Spain gives Britain Fla. Spain receives Louisiana from France.

Pontiac's War

War that occured when Pontiac led an attack on British troops at Fort Detroit

Proclamation of 1763

A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains...Began years of conflict between the colonies and the British government

Sugar Act

A tax put on sugar by the British to help pay for the French and Indian War

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