60 terms

World History Chapters 3-4: Buddhism

chapter review study questions from chapters 3 & 4
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Who was the founder of Buddhism?
Siddhartha Gautama
When did legend about Siddhartha when he was a baby?
he was destined to become a great spiritual leader
What did his father do to make sure he became a great leader?
isolated him from the world in a palace for 30 years
What were some of the things Siddhartha saw when he left the palace?
old man, sick man, corpse, wandering man
What did these observations teach Siddhartha about life?
every living thing experiences old age, sickness, and death
What did Siddhartha believe about religious life?
religion is an escape from suffering
When Siddhartha left the palace for 6 years, what was he seeking?
enlightenment and wisdom
What did Siddhartha do to find enlightenment?
debated with religious leaders and fasted
After debating and fasting failed to work, what did Siddhartha do to find enlightenment?
meditated for 49 days to achieve an understanding of the cause of world suffering
After meditating, what did Siddhartha Gautama became known as?
Buddha
What are the 4 noble truths of buddhism?
1st life is filled with suffering
2nd suffering is caused by selfish desires
3rd end suffering by ending desires
4th overcome suffering by following the eightfold path
What is the Eightfold Path?
middle way between desires and self-denial
What is the goal of Buddhists?
achieve nirvana
What is nirvana?
release from selfishness and pain
Do Buddhists agree with reincarnation (being reborn)?
Yes
Do Buddhists support the Hindu Gods?
No, they reject them
Did Buddha support the Brahman priests?
No, Buddha believed they had to many privileges
Did Buddha agree with the caste system?
No, Buddha believed people should be able to work their way up through achievements
Who were the majority of Buddha's followers?
laborers
Did Buddha accept women to religious orders?
Yes
Why was Buddha nervous about women being involved in religious orders?
believed that women would distract men from their religious duties
Name 3 vows of being a monk or nun.
1. live in poverty
2. be nonviolent
3. not able to marry
Why do missionaries carry a begging bowl?
receive daily charity offerings
Where do Buddhists live today?
Southeast Asia and Japan
Is Buddhism made up of only one religion?
No, parts of many different religions
What are Buddha's teachings called?
dharma
What do dharma's teachings say is the key to happiness?
detachment from worldly gods and desires
What do Buddhists believe all living things possess?
potential for spiritual growth and the possibility of rebirth as humans
What are some examples of applying Buddha's teachings?
1. meditation
2. make offerings to shrines and temples
What is the sacred text of Buddhism?
Sutras
What is the supreme spirit of Buddha?
Bodhisatva
What are the 8 parts of the Eightfold Path?
1. Right view
2. Right thought
3. Right speech
4. Right Conduct
5. Right livelihood
6. Right effort
7. Right mindfulness
8. Right concentration
What are the 2 major sects of Buddhism?
1. Theravada
2. Mahayana
How do the Theravadas view Buddha?
view Buddha as a teacher
How do the Mahayana view Buddha?
view Buddha as a god
Do Buddhists have a formal worship service?
No
What do we call the descendant of Buddha?
Dalai Lama
What are common traditions of Buddhists?
1. gardens
2. archery
3. tea ceremony
4. calligraphy
Who was Confucius?
China's most influential scholar
Was Confucius a god?
No
Did Confucius believe that most humans are good?
Yes, they just need to be shown the way.
What are 3 things that Confucius believed would help restore China?
1. social order
2. harmony
3. good government
What are the 5 basic relationships that Confucius believed social order needed to be organized around?
1. ruler and subject
2. father and son
3 husband and wife
4. Older brother and younger brother
5. friend and friend
What did Confucius believe children should practice?
filial piety (respect for parents)
What did Confucius believe was the key to reforming society?
education
Is Confucianism a religion?
No, it is an ethical system
What was the sacred text that Confucius used?
Analects
What do the yin and yang symbols represent?
opposing forces in the world working together in harmony.
What do Confucians celebrate on September 28?
Teacher's Day to celebrate teachers
Who developed Daoism?
Chinese philosopher Laozi
What did Laozi believe?
natural order involves relations among all living things
What was Laozi's sacred text?
Way of Virtue
What was the Dao?
The Way - guides all things
What do Daoists believe is more important than social order?
natural order
What do Daoists believe humans should do?
live in harmony with nature
Who founded legalism?
Hanfeizi and Li Si
What do Legalists believe about people?
people are naturally bad and selfish. they require discipline to have order
What do legalists believe is the key to social order?
powerful government
What do Legalists control?
all ideas and actions
Why are punishments used by Legalists?
maintain social order