PHSC 1420 - Earth Science NGU - Chapter 1

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Terms in this set (...)

Earth Science is the name for all the sciences that collectively seek to understand _______ and its surrounding __________________. It includes geology, oceanography, meteorology, adn astronomy.
Earth, space
_____________ means the study of the Earth
geology
_________ is the study of the atmosphere and the processes that produce weather and climate.
Meteorology
______ is the study of the universe
astronomy
What are the two subdivisions of geology?
Physical geology and Historical geology.
Physical geology examines the materials comprising Earth and seeks to understand the many processes that operate ______ and _____ its surface.
beneath and upon
Historical geology seeks to understand the _______ of Earth and the _________ of the planet through its history.
origins, evolution
The ____ is a dynamic mass of water that is continually moving, evaporating from oceans to the atmosphere, precipitating to the land, and flowing back to the ocean.
hydrosphere.
The _______ is the life-giving envelope surrounding the Earth. This thin blanket of air is an integral part of our planet.
atmosphere
The ______ includes all life on Earth.
biosphere
The ______ solid Earth that lies beneath the atmosphere and the ocean.
geosphere
Name the three principal layers of the geosphere:
core, mantle, and crust
The ________ refers to the rigid outer layer that includes the crust and the uppermost mantle.
lithosphere
The rocks of the _______ are beneath the lithosphere and are weak and able to slowly flow in response to the uneven distribution of heat deep within the Earth's crust.
asthenosphere
The ____ ______ is the many separate parts of our planet Earth interacting within the spheres to produce a complex and continuously interacting whole.
Earth system
A __________ is a group of interacting or interdependent parts that form a complex whole.
system
All parts of the earth system are linked. A change in time and space scales can influence the entire ___________.
system
What are the two energy sources for the Earth?
Sun and the Earth's Interior
T or F: Humans are part of the Earth system where the living and nonliving components are entwined and connected and our actions produce change in other parts.
True
What is geologic time?
the span of time since the formation of the Earth
The _______ _________ encompasses water, air, soil, and rock as well as conditions such as temperature, humidity, and sunlight.
physical environment
What are the two types of resources:
1. Renewable, 2. Nonrenewable
Name some renewable resources that are replenishable over time:
plants, animals, energy from the sun or water or wind,
Name some nonrenewable resources that are not replenishable over time:
iron, aluminum, copper and most of our fuels like oil, natural gas, and coal.
A ___________ is formed once facts have been gathered and principles have been formulated to describe a natural phenonmen, investigators try to explain how or why things happen in the manner observed.
Hypothesis
A _____________ is determined after a scientific hypothesis has survived scrutiny and when competing hypothesises have been eliminated.
theory
The _____ ____ is when researchers gather facts through observations, formulate a hypothesis, and develop theories.
Scientific method
Of all the water on the Earth, more than _______ % is in the oceans, which cover nearly ___ % of the Earth's planet surface.
96% and 71%
T or F: The environment refers to everything that surrounds and influences an organism. Nonliving components, such as air, water, soil, and rock are collectively called the Physical Environment.
True
Important relationships between people and the environment include the quest for _________________________, the impact of people on the natural environment, and the effects of natural hazards.
resources
In science, a ______ is a well-tested and widely accepted explanation that the scientific community agrees best fits certain observable facts.
theory
The innermost layer of Earth, based on composition. It is thought to be largely an iron-nickle alloy, with minor amounts of oxygen, silicon, and sulfur.
Core
The very thin outermost layer of Earth.
Crust
The 2900 kilometer thick layer of Earth located below the crust.
Mantle
A natural phenomenon that represents a potential danger to people, such as an earthquake, a volcanic eruption, or hurricane.
Natural hazzard
A well-tested and widely accepted view that explains certain observable facts.
Theory