41 terms

Psychology: Chap 3C

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Terms in this set (...)

Development
changes in the physical, cognitive, and personality
-social characteristics of the individual over time
physical development
changes of bodily features such as weight and height
-change in motor skills
-physiological changes that accompany puberty and aging
cognitive development
changes in thinking, memory, language and problem solving
Life-span
1-pre-natal (whom)
2-Infancy (0-2)
3-Childhood (2-8ish)
4-Adolescence (8-15ish)
5-Adulthood (16-65ish)
6-Elderly (opinion)
Maturation/Puberty
maturation of the sexual and reproductive systems and the development of secondary sex characteristics
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
defects in newborn babies caused by the abuse of alcohol and drugs by the mother
Infancy
(0-2 years)
sheltered environment and a narrow circle of human contact
Rooting Reflex
occurs when you touch a baby's cheek and he/she turns his/her head to search for the source
-adaptive for survival
Suckling Reflex
if anything touches the baby's lips, the baby immediately begins to suck on that object
Moro Reflex
AKA startle reflex, occurs when something in the environment changes quickly
-baby extends both arms and brings legs in
Babinski Reflex
when the bottom of the baby's foot is stroked, baby first spreads the toes and then curls them in
Readiness to Learn
babies cannot learn until their muscles and neural structures are developed enough
-each child learns at their own pace and you cannot force them to learn quicker
Sex roles
masculinity or femininity, from birth labeled as a boy or girl
-girls handle more gently, boys are treated more roughly
ex.) dolls=girls/trucks+boys
Gender Identity
the inner sense of being male or female
-develops at an early age
Attachment/"contact comfort"
"Harlow's Experiment"
ex.) monkey prefers cloth monkey and not wire monkey even when fed by the wire monkey
childhood
ages 2-4: as toddlers turn into children, socially they become less dependent on parents and more responsive to their peers
-time of rapid cognitive development
Freud's Theory of Personality Development
Psycho-sexual stages (developmental)/"pleasure"
-Oral Stage--> fixation is the mouth (year 1)

-Anal Stage--> potty training (2-3 years old)

-Phallic Stage--> boy vs. girl (4-5 years old)

-Latency Stage--> boys hate girls; girls hate boys
(6-puberty)

-Genital Stage--> Puberty and beyond
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
-Sensorimotor period
-Pre-operational thought period
-Concrete operations period
-Formal operations period
Sensorimotor period
(0-2 years)
learn to coordinate sensory experiences with motor activities (coordination)
-exploration is a major motivation
-Trial and Error
Object permanence
if you take away an object, children will realize and look for it
Pre-operational thought period
(2-7 years)
-learn language
-use symbols to represent the world
-beginnings of classification
Animism
when children give human characteristics to inanimate objects
Egocentrism
children see themselves as the center of the universe
Concrete operations period
(7-11 years)
-acquire problem solving skills
-advanced classification
Conservation
properties (amount) do not change, even though appearance does
Decenter
realize that their way of looking at the world is only one perspective
Reversal
the ability to work a problem backwards
Formal operations period
(age 11 and on)
- abstract thought : science, religion, morality and politics
-Hypothetical solutions- what if?
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
-Pre-conventional morality (parents)

-Conventional morality (friends)

-Post-conventional morality (personal morals/ethics)
Pre-conventional morality
-behavior is based largely on expectations of rewards and punishments
-individual conforms to society's rules
-usually entails children under the age of 10
Conventional morality
-individual behaves morally in order to gain approval from other people
-conform to avoid censure and guilt
-usually occur around age 13
Post-conventional morality
-highest level of moral thinking
-based on personal beliefs and standards
-individual guided by their conscience
Adolescence
(8-19ish)
period of human development between puberty and adulthood
Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Life-Span Approach
8 stages (indiv. faces a crisis in each stage and when one is met they move on to the next one)

-Trust vs. Mistrust: (0-1 years)
-when you're an infant and you can't trust adults in your life you mistrust everyone
-Autonomy (power) vs. Doubt: (2-3 years)
-kids desire a little control
-choices= good for kids
-Initiative (person does it) vs. Guilt: (4-5 years)
- allow kids to follow thru and maybe fail
-Industry (school) vs. Inferiority: (6-11 years)

-Identity vs. Role Confusion: (Adolescence)
- Who Am I?
-Intimacy vs. Isolation: (Young Adult)
- (closeness) vs. (relationship/friendship)
-Generativity vs. Self-absorption: (Middle Adult)
- (Awareness) vs. (Egocentrism)
-Integrity vs. Despair: (Old Age)
- coulda/shoulda/woulda-No regrets
Adulthood
period of human development after adolescence
Adulthood ages
Early- "prime of life", physical peak
Middle- physical aging; weaker sense organs
Late- physical deterioration
Fluid Intelligence
the ability to solve novel problems
Crystallized Intelligence
verbal reasoning and comprehension of cultural concepts
Alzheimer's disease
a degenerative disorder of the brain that results in irreversible memory loss
Kubler Ross's Stages of Dying
1- Denial: person believes the doctor is mistaken, "I couldn't be dying."

2- Anger: when the person realizes they are dying they become resentful of all those around them

3- Bargaining: the person try's to buy time by bargaining for time with doctors , family and God

4- Depression: the person recognizes the inevitable and reaches an emotional low

5- Acceptance: the person accepts death as part of life, and is now able to make necessary preparations for the end of their life
Hospice Movement
place for terminally ill patients to die with respect and dignity (can be set up at hospice center or at home)
- treat symptoms of the illness, and not the cause
-help plan funeral/end of life
ex.) offer pain killers, psychological and spiritual support for patient and the family