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Terms in this set (64)
proposed an American law to ban slavery in territory acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War (1840s)
Free Soil Party
a political party active in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections formed by members of the Whig Party, the Liberty Party, and anti-slavery democrats. They opposed the extension of slavery
Compromise of 1850
the Fugitive Slave Act was amended and the slave trade in Washington D.C. was abolished. Furthermore, California entered the union as a free state and territorial government was created in Utah.
Fugitive Slave Act
provided southern slaveholders with legal weapons to capture slaves who had escaped to the free states
the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives, who are the source of all political power
of 1854. it allowed citizens in Kansas and nebraska to decide locally whether to allow slavery. it was modeled on the compromise of 1850
from 1853-1856. The aim was to keep control of the government in the hands of native-born citizens. It was anti-catholic and hostile towards immigration
a series of violent political confrontations in the US between 1854-1861 involving anti-slavery people and pro-slavery people. A crucial event that led up to the civil war
Dred Scott Decision
(1857) Affirmed the right of slave owners to take their sales into the Western territories, ruling that slaves in free territories were still slaves. Negated the doctrine of popular sovereignty and undermined the platform of the Republican party
(1858) a series of debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas during their campaigning for election to US Senate. Most of the debates concerned slavery and its extension into territories such as Kansas
a small town in West Virginia that was the site of a raid in 1859 by the abolitionist John Brown and his followers who captured an arsenal that was located there
a group of radical pro-slavery southerners in the Antebellum South who urged the separation of Southern states into a new nation
Election of 1860
Abraham Lincoln was elected as president. Southerners feared that his election would lead to slavery's demise, and vowed to leave the Union if he was elected
the American Civil War is often cited as the first modern war because its belligerents involved wielded a wide array of weaponry and utilized systems of tactics like advanced ballistics and rifling, mechanized warfare, etc.
(1863) a legislation passed by the US Congress during the Civil War to provide fresh manpower for the Union Army
Monitor v. Merrimac
A naval engagement of the Civil War, fought in 1862 off the coast of Virginia between two ironclad ships, the Union Monitor and the Confederate Virginia
Battle of Antietam
(1862) a battle during the civil war that halted the Confederate advance on Maryland for the purpose of gaining military supplies
a term used in the military during the Civil War to describe a new status for certain escaped slaves or those who affiliated with Union forces
(1854-1877) a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party who believed that the Civil War had to end slavery
executive order issued on January 1, 1863, by President Lincoln freeing slaves in all portions of the US not then under Union control
(1865) abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime
Black Soldiers and Sailors
7,122 officers and 178,975 soldiers were black. 20,000 black sailors served in the Union Navy and formed a large percentage of many ships' crews. They were instrumental in winning the way, yet they received lower pay
Second American Revolution
post-civil war. refers to the time after the Civil war and thirteenth amendment. time of reconstruction
(1862) a law passed that offered up to 160 acres of public land to any head of a family who paid a registration fee, lived on the land for 5 years, and cultivated it or build on it. included black americans
Navajo's Long Walk
(1864) decoration of the Navajo people by the US government. Navajos were forced to walk from their land in what is now Arizona to eastern New Mexico
National Banking System
(1863) established a system of national banks that encouraged development of a national currency backed by bank holdings of US treasury. Helped resolve the financial crisis that emerged during the early day of the Civil War
Women and War Work
thousands of women in the North and South joined volunteer brigades and signed up to work as nurses. They took on new roles at home after their husbands, brothers, and fathers were drafted
a private relief agency created by federal legislation in 1861 to support sick and wounded soldiers of the US Army
"King Cotton Diplomacy"
refers to the diplomatic methods employed by the confederacy during the Civil War to coerce the United Kingdom and France to support the Confederate war effort by implementing a cotton trade embargo against the UK and rest of Europe
Sea Island Experiment
(1861) a program begun prior to formal reconstruction. former slaves successfully worked on the land abandoned by white planters
a souther state could be readmitted into the Union once 10 percent of its voters swore an oath of allegiance to the Union
(1865) agency of the War Department set up to assist freed slaves in obtaining relief, land, jobs, fair treatment, and education
a system of farming in which landowners allow a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land
a credit system that became widely used by cotton farmers in the South form the 1860s to the 1930s. Sharecroppers and tenant farmers who did not own the land they worked obtained supplies and food on credit from local merchants.
any code of law that defined and especially limited the rights of former slaves after the Civil war. they were passed by Democrat-controlled Southern Staes in 1865 and 1866
Civil Rights Bill of 1866
first United States federal law to define citizenship and affirm that all citizens are equally protected by the law
(1868) The amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War.
(1867) providing for the reorganization of the former Confederate states and setting forth the process by which they were to be restored to representation in Congress
(1870) prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude".
first wave of American feminism. Susan B. Anthony issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women
Scalawags and Carpetbaggers (in order)
southern whites who supported Reconstruction and the Republican Party, after the American Civil War; northerners who moved to the South after the American Civil War during the reconstruction era
Ku Klux Klan
a secret society in the southern US that aimed to suppress the newly acquired rights of black people and to oppose carpetbaggers from the North
(1873) in Colfax, Louisiana, approximately 150 black men were murdered by Southern Democrats.
(1870-1871) three bills that were criminal codes which protected African-Americans' right to vote, to hold office, to serve on juries, and receive equal protection of laws.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
a United States federal law enacted during the Reconstruction Era in response to civil rights violations to African Americans, "to protect all citizens in their civil and legal rights"
(1873) legal dispute that resulted in a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision, limiting the protection of the privileges and immunities clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
the southern wing of the Bourbon Democrats, the conservative, pro-business faction in the Democratic Party, who pursued a policy of Redemption, seeking to oust the Radical Republicans, a coalition of freedmen, "carpetbaggers", and "scalawags".
Bargain of 1877
a purported informal, unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election. It resulted in the United States federal government pulling the last troops out of the South, and formally ended the Reconstruction Era.
refer to monopolies or near-monopolies in the United States during the Second Industrial Revolution in the 19th century and early 20th century.
A market structure characterized by a single seller, selling a unique product in the market. In a monopoly market, the seller faces no competition, as he is the sole seller of goods with no close substitute. He enjoys the power of setting the price for his goods.
an arrangement in which the supply chain of a company is owned by that company. Usually each member of the supply chain produces a different product or (market-specific) service, and the products combine to satisfy a common need.
process of a company increasing production of goods or services at the same part of the supply chain. A company may do this via internal expansion, acquisition or merger. The process can lead to monopoly if a company captures the vast majority of the market for that product or service.
"Captains of Industry" v. "Robber Barons"
industrialists viewed as true leaders of the society vs. ruthless businessman who were very much concerned with personal wealth
very large farms established in the western United States during the late nineteenth century. They conducted large-scale operations, mostly cultivating and harvesting wheat.
Gospel of Wealth
article written by Andrew Carnegie in June of 1889 that describes the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich.
a U.S. legal-tender note, printed in green on the back since the Civil War; were not asked by gold or silver
Interstate Commerce Commission
former independent agency of the U.S. government, established in 1887; it was charged with regulating the economics and services of specified carriers engaged in transportation between states.
Sherman Antitrust Act
act passed in 1890 which prohibited any "contract, combination, in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce."
Patrons of Husbandry (Grange)
a group organized in 1867, the leader of which was Oliver H. Kelley. It was better known as the Grange. It was a group with colorful appeal and many passwords for secrecy. The Grange was a group of farmers that worked for improvement for the farmers.
the rich were a result of natural selection and benefits society. it justified the rich being rich, and poor being poor.
Liberty of Contract
freedom of private or public individuals and groups (of any legal entity) to form contracts without government restrictions. This is opposed to government restrictions such as minimum wage, competition law, or price fixing.
Knights of Labor
secret labor organization formed in 1869 to secure and maintain the rights of workingmen in respect to their relations to their employers.
a movement in North American Protestantism which applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially issues of social justice such as economic inequality, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, unclean environment, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, and the danger of war. most prominent in the early 20th century
the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday, May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square in Chicago. An unknown person threw a dynamite bomb at police as they acted to disperse the public meeting. the riot was caused by the demands for an eight-hour working day
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United States History: Beginnings to 1877
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America: History of Our Nation
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