Unit 1 Review (chapters 1-3)

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Mesopotamia: Social
According to Hammurabi's code, lower classes were punished more harshly, women had a lower status than Egyptian women, must veil and they can't leave home
Mesopotamia: Political
city-states were ruled by the kings, theocracy ( religious and political leaders were the same), each city-state had its own king, new civilizations were constantly moving through- Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, (constant warfare between city states, people lived in walled cities for protection- urban population
Mesopotamia: Interactions
between humans and the environment. Geography: no natural boundaries, so they had lots of invaders, at the intersection of Tigris and Euphrates, constant overuse of land- soil erosion in later times
Mesopotamia: Culture
polytheistic, cuneiform, ziggurats (monumental architecture), Epic of Gilgamesh
Mesopotamia: Economy
trans regional trade with Indus Valley and Egypt. Ag based on wheat and Barley.
Indus River Valley (Harappa): Social
priestly class was important
Indus River Valley (Harappa): Political
they had a govt, not sure what it was because no places found, could be ruled by priests
Indus River Valley (Harappa): Interactions
cut a lot of trees to make fires for brick construction, one reason why their civilization could be flooding (silt found on homes and some homes on stilts), 2 major cities: Harappa and Mohenjo Daro
Indus River Valley (Harappa): Culture
polytheistic, sacred cows, seals (clay tablets) with sacred cow and writing on them, historians can not read their writing, no monumental architecture, houses were built with multiple stories, most advanced sewage system in the ancient world. public bath house, indoor plumbing, cities were organized in a grid like pattern
Indus River Valley (Harappa): Economy
made lots of art (beads, jewelry, seals), did not make weapons, trans regional trade (some seals found in Mesopotamia)
Paleoithic
Old stone age, hunter- gatherer, egalitarian, no patriarchy, nomadic, more free time and healthier than early agriculturalists
Neolithic
new stone age, agricultural revolution, domestication of plants and animals, after the ice age, people start to become specialists, before civilizations, starting to have stratification of class and society, were not nomadic- sedentary, options other than Ag: pastoralists (herders, like Bantu, of Africa, who spread language and idea of ag), or stay hunter gatherer
Norte Chico
same times as Egypt and Sumer, Andes Mountains, present day Peru pre-ceramic, fish, built mounds, no river valley
Olmec
present day mexico, mother culture for Maya, latest civ out of all of them, no river valley, chiefdom, classes were more flexible, chief is fixed status
1.What was human society like during the Paleolithic era? Why is the Paleolithic era significant?
In the paleoithic era, people were hunter- gatherers. It is signifigant because this is how people lived for the majority of human's time on earth
2. What did the dispersal of humankind over the planet look like?
...
3. When did the last ice age end and what effect did it have on society?
10,000 years ago. It caused the death of many of the large mammals, so the people began to settle down, and it also improved the quality of the soil, so farming was better
4. What is the agricultural revolution, what is revolutionary about it? What prompted it to happen?
The ag rev was the move of the humans from a hunting gathering lifestyle to an agricultural one, and it was prompted because people began to settle down (they had large populations to feed), the soil was better, and the large mammals died.
5.In what ways did agriculture spread? Where and why was it sometimes resisted?
Ag spread mostly across latitudes, but it was created independently in many different areas. Cultural diffusion is how ag spread. It was sometimes resisted because it was easier to be hunter gatherers, and sometimes they didnt have the resources to sustain an ag lifestyle
6. Did all people convert to agriculture, what other options did they have? What was the role of pastoralists?
Some stayed hunter gatherers, and some became pastorilists. These pastorilists herded the animals and domesticated them for food, supplies, and to work.
7. According to Jared Diamond, why did human development proceed at such different rates on different continents?
geography (explain)
In what ways did agricultural societies differ from the Paleolithic societies?
Ag societies were in city-states, not egalitarian, stratified social classes, had specialists,
What are the core civilizations (aka first civilizations) and where are the core civilizations located?
Mesopotamia/Sumer (mespotamia), Egyptian (Egypt), Haprappa (Indus River Valley), Shang Dynasty (China), Olmec (Mesoamerica/Mexico), Notre Chico aka Chavin (Andes mtns/ Peru)
What accounts for the initial breakthrough to civilization?
large populations of people were living together, and after specialization started becoming bigger (bc of ag rev) more stratification led to a need for a centralized govt and finally civilizations broke through. All civilizations arose from chiefdoms and powerful ag societies. The larger populations made more competitive societies, and people moved to large cities for protection from war. When a civ would win a war, the loosers would become join the winning civ and the leader of the winning civilization would gain land, workers, and a powerful state (this is how massive civilizations came about)
What was the role of cities in the early civilizations?
the cities offered the people protection, and were also the place of temples, and trade centers
What were ways in which social inequality was evidenced in early civilizations? Why did patriarchies develop in these core civilizations?
In this time, laws were created to regulate the growing societies. These laws actually granted women more protection, but only by selling themselves into their husbands. Also, the punishments were much more severe for the people of the lower class compared to upper classes. To support the growing population, women had more children, but in turn were always pregnant or needed to take care of the children. This differed from their previous jobs in neolithic societies being the people who carried out the agriculture. Because of this men considered themselves dominant, and were able to rise to high positions in which they created public policy (that they created to their advantage) women also represented natural aspects of life,and men the more architectural and metal age, which gave them the upper hand as women became insignificant. Women had it better in Egypt than Mesopotamia
Compare and Contrast Egypt and Mesopotamia. Do SPICE Chart for each. How was each society affected by its geography?
Mesopotamia
Social: (classes and gender roles) According to Hammurabi's code, lower classes were punished more harshly, women had a lower status than Egyptian women, must veil and they can't leave home
Political: city-states were ruled by the kinds, theocracy ( religious and political leaders were the same), each city-state had its own king, new civilizations were constantly moving through- Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, (constant warfare between city states, people lived in walled cities for protection- urban population
Interaction: between humans and the environment. Geography: no natural boundaries, so they had lots of invaders, at the intersection of Tigris and Euphrates, constant overuse of land- soil erosion in later times
Culture: (religion, arts, architecture, and writing)- polytheistic, cuneiform, ziggurats (monumental architecture), Epic of Gilgamesh
Economy: trans regional trade with Indus Valley and Egypt. Ag based on wheat and Barley.

Egypt
Social: women had it better here than Mesopotamia, with powerful female goddesses, and even woman pharaohs (Hatsheput). The pharaoh was the supreme leader, and his generals and court were powerful in the society. Then came artisans and agriculturalists, and finally, slaves
Political: theocracy, the pharaoh was thought of as a god (orisis), Egypt was unified under the pharaoh which provided unity for many years. Cities were not as important, because they had so much natural protection, so many people lived in ag villages along the Nile
Interaction: The Egyptians lived in a very fertile land area, and they soil was good for the wheat and barley that they grew because of the flooding of the nile annually. Egypt was located along the nile (transportation and communication) and it was in a desert and surrounded by mountains, so it had great natural boundaries and protections
Culture: The Egyptians worshiped gods and godesses and had a much more positive outlook on the afterlife than the Mesopotamians, they believed that anyone could possibly make it to the afterlife if they had good morals. The pyramids were burial sites for the kings, and equipped with everything the mummified pharaohs would need in the afterlife. The Egyptians used hieroglyphics as writing.
Economy: Egypt traded trans regionally with Mesopotamia and African regions, and had a very strong economy because of its great agriculture
What cities are important in the Indus Valley? What is their political structure like?
Harappa: was probably ruled by a priestly class, but not a very strong centralized government, because no large palaces were found
What contributed to the demise of Harappan civilization?
...
What was culture like in the Harappan civilization? Did they have monumental architecture, what types of art did they have? How do historians know what the Harappan civilization was like, what do they use to interpret their society?
polytheistic, sacred cows, seals (clay tablets) with sacred cow and writing on them, historians can not read their writing, no monumental architecture, houses were built with multiple stories, most advanced sewage system in the ancient world. public bath house, indoor plumbing, cities were organized in a grid like pattern
What is the order of succession of Chinese dynasties?
look in yo folder
How was Shang society organized? How did Chinese writing develop?
leader was a king, who had a very lavish burial, and the chinese state was greatly enlarged during this dynasty. Chinese wiriting was from oracle bone script (a turtle shell, or animal bone)
What contributed to the decline of the Shang dynasty? How did the Zhou dynasty come to power?
The last ruler in the Shang dynasty was King Zhou, and he was very corrupt and created politcal unrest among the people. The pastoral Zhou came in and took over the area, and became the next ruling dynasty.
How was Zhou society organized?
the ruler was considered the son of heaven, and he ruled on the grounds of the mandate of heaven (it gives the rulers the power of the gods, so they can make whatever rule they want, but if the king fails his duties he can be stripped of this honor)
What type of architecture have historians found in Norte Chico? What was their largest city? Did they have a form of writing? What was their economy like, were they involved in trade?
historians have found monumental archetecture in Norte Chico (Which just means they made really big stuff like ziggurats and pyramids) The biggest city was called Caral. They did not have writing but used a quipu (a series of knots that have numerical value) They had a trade based economy, and they traded fish for cotton, squash, and beans)
What is the geography like in the Olmec heartland? How does the geography affect their culture? What types of foods are available for consumption?
The Olmec were in a deep tropical rain forest in present day Mexico. They were able to grow many crops like maize, squash, and beans, but because there were no domesticated animals in mesoamerica, agriculture was harder for them. They ate maize, squash, beans, fish, and dogs.
What was the Olmec political structure like? In what ways did rulers legitimize themselves?
The Olmecs were the first civilization in the Americas. They were a chiefdom with 2 social classes (no caste system) and the chief has permanent power. The chiefs had large head sculptures of rock made of themselves to legitimize themselves.
Did the Olmecs develop writing? What future cultures are based off Olmec culture?
yes, they used signs to represent syllables and words using bars and dots. The Mayan calandar is based on Olmec writing
What type of technology did the Olmecs have?
the olmecs would use their rivers as transportation, and were very good at art and stone carving
Terms: Paleolithic rock art, Venus figurines, shamans, Paleolithic settling down, End of the last Ice Age, "broad spectrum diet", Fertile Crescent, diffusion, Bantu migration, pastoral societies, Catal Huyuk, "stateless societies", chiefdoms, Agricultural revolution, domestication, Norte Chico/Caral, Indus Valley Civilization, Olmec civilization, Olmec Heads, Uruk, Mohenjo Daro, Harappa, Code of Hammurabi, patriarchy, "rise of the state", Epic of Gilgamesh, "the gift of the Nile", Nubia, Hyksos, Sumer, Akkad, Babylon, Hatshepsut, Book of the Dead, Shang Dynasty, Zhou Dynasty, oracle bones, ancestor worship, Mandate of Heaven, literacy, monumental architecture.
...