Apush Midterm Review Chapters 1-25

Terms in this set (98)

America's economic transformation in the early 1800s was linked to dramatic changes in transportation networks. Construction of roads, canals, and railroads led to the expansion of markets, facilitate the movement of peoples. Improvements in transportation were needed for raw material transport to factories and finished products were to be delivered to consumers. Lancaster Turnpike- a hard road from Philadelphia to Lancaster, PA which brought economic expansion westward. The federal government constructed the Cumberland Road also known as The National Road (Maryland-Illinois) with state and federal money. Robert Fulton invented the first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807; steamboats were common by the 1830s. This caused an increase of U.S. trade because there was no concern for weather and water current. The success of the steamboat was sensational. People could now in large degree defy wind, wave, tide, and downstream current. Within a few years, Fulton had changed all of America's navigable streams into two-way arteries, thereby doubling their carrying capacity. This contributed to the development of Southern and Western economies, steamboats helped played a vital role in opening the West and South both of which were richly endowed with navigable rivers. The most significant contribution to the development of such an economy proved to be the railroad, the iron horse. It was fast, reliable, cheaper than canals to construct, and not frozen over in winter. The first railroad appeared in the United States in 1828, and the new lines spread with amazing swiftness. By 1860, 30,000 miles of railroad tracks had been laid in the U.S. (3//4 of those tracks were up North). The railroads were 1st opposed from vested interests because financiers were afraid of losing money from Erie Canal traffic; railroads also caused fires to houses from their embers. Early railroads were dangerous because of this, fire. The sparks could set fire to nery haystacks and appalling railway accidents could turn the wooden "miniature hells" into flaming funeral pyres for their riders. Early trains were poorly constructed(with bad brakes) and the gauge of tracks varied. Brakes were so feeble that the engineer might miss the station twice both arriving and backing up. America at long last was being bound together with braces of iron, later to be with made of steel.
Church attendance was regular in 1850 (¾ of the population attended). Alexis de Tocqueville declared that there was "no country in the world where the Christian religion retains a greater influence over the souls of men than in America. Thomas Paine's widely circulated the book The Age of Reason (1794) had shockingly declared that all churches were "set up to terrify and and enslave mankind,monopolize power and profit. Many relied on Deism (reason than revelation, on science rather than the Bible). They rejected the concept of original sin and denied Christ's divinity. Yet Deists believed in a Supreme Being who had created a knowable universe and endowed human beings with a capacity for moral behavior. Calvinism, the doctrines of predestination and human depravity had always been thorny, even gloomy. Unitarian faith begins in New England. They believed God existed in only 1 person, not in the orthodox trinity; stressed goodness of human nature. Believed in free will and salvation through good works; pictured God as a loving father, Appealed to intellectuals with rationalism and optimism. Liberalism in religion started in 1800 spawned the 2nd Great Awakening a tidal wave of spiritual fervor that resulted in converting souls, many that were previously shattered,, and reorganized churches, and numerous sections. It also encouraged an effervescent evangelicalism(related to the teachings of the gospel or the Christian religion). The 2nd awakening resulted in- prison reform, the temperance cause(no alcohol), the women's movement, and the crusade to abolish slavery. The 2nd Great Awakening spread to the masses through huge "camp meetings". The East went to the West to Christianize Indians. Methodists and Baptists reaped the most abundant harvest of souls from the fields fertilized by revivalism. Both sections stressed personal conversion ( contrary to predestination) , a relatively democratic(democracy) control of church affairs, and a rousing emotionalism. Peter Cartwright(785-1872) was the best known of the Methodist "circuit riders," or traveling frontier preachers. Charles Grandison Finney was the greatest of the revival preachers who led massive revivals in Rochester, NY in 1830 and 1831. Finney preached a version of the old time religion but he was also an innovator. He encouraged women to pray out loud in public. Finney denounced both alcohol and slavery. A key feature of the Second Great Awakening was the feminization of religion, in terms of both church membership and theology. Middle-class women, the wives and daughters of businessmen were the first and most fervent enthusiasts of religious revivalism. They made up the majority of new church members.
in the 19th century it was still a man's world, both in America and Europe.A wife was supposed to immerse herself in her home and subordinate herself to her lord and master. She could not vote and could be legally beaten by her overload. She could not retain title to her property; it passed to her husband. So they stayed home. Still, in the 19th century, American women were generally better of than in Europe. Many women avoided marriage altogether becoming "spinsters"at the time of the Civil War. Gender differences were strongly emphasized in nineteenth-century America-largely because the burgeoning market economy was increasingly separating women and men into sharply distinct economic roles. Women were perceived as weak, physically, emotionally, but fine for teaching, but also artistic and refined. They were the society's conscience with special responsibility to teach the young how to be good and productive citizens of the Republic. Men were perceived as strong, but crude and barbaric, if not guided by the purity of women.The home was the center of the "cult of domesticity" of the female's world (even for reformer Catharine Beecher) but many felt that was not enough. Most were broad-gauge battlers, while demanding rights for women, they joined in the general reform movement of the age, fighting for temperance and the abolition of slavery. The women's rights movement was mothered by some arresting characters. It was led by Lucretia Mott who was a sprightly Quaker whose ire had been aroused when she and her fellow female delegates to the London anti slavery convention of 1840 were not recognized. Elizabeth Cady Stanton,, a mother of seven who had insisted on leaving "obey" out of her marriage ceremony, shocked fellow feminists by going so far as to advocate suffrage for women. Quaker-reared Susan B. Anthony was a militant lecturer for women's rights, fearlessly exposed herself to rotten garbage and vulgar epithets. She became an advocate of female rights that progressive women everywhere were called Suzy B's. Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell was a pioneer in a previously forbidden profession for women was the first female graduate of a medical college. The Grimke sisters, Sarah and Angelina, championed antislavery. Amelia Bloomer revolted against the current "street sweeping" female attire by donning a short skirt with Turkish trousers- "bloomers". The feminists met in 1848 in a memorable Woman's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls, New York. Stanton read the Declaration of Sentiments, which in the spirit of the Declaration of Independence declared that all men and women are created equal. It demanded ballot for women and the Seneca Falls Convention launched the modern women's right movement. The crusade for women's rights was eclipsed by the campaign against slavery in the decade before the Civil War.
ever since it had declared independence in 1836, Texas had built up reinforcements because it had no idea if or when Mexico would attack again to reclaim the "province in revolt". Mexico, refused to recognize Texas's independence, regarded the Lone Star Republic as a province in revolt to be reconquered in the future. Texas was driven to open negotiations with Britain and France, in the hope of securing the defensive shield of a protectorate. In 1839 and 1840, the Texans concluded treaties with France, Holland, and Belgium. Britain was intensely interested in an independent Texas. These alliances worried the U.S. because if Texas buddied up to Europe, Britain especially, it's cause big problems for America, such as the monroe doctrine where Europe was told to stay away, it would be undermined if England had a buddy over here in Texas. The dominant Southern cotton economy would also be undercut by Texas cotton shipping to England. A puppet Texas dancing to strings pulled by Britain, could be turned upon the Yankees. Subsequent clashes would create a diversion behind which foreign powers could move into the Americas and challenge the insolent Monroe Doctrine. French schemers were attracted by the game of divide and conquer. These actions would result, they hoped, in the fragmentation and militarization of America. The U.S. was a stand-still over what to do with Texas. The North decried the Southern "slavocracy" (a supposed Southern conspiracy to always gain more slave land). American could not just boldly annex Texas without a war with Mexico. Overseas, Britain wanted an independent Texas to check American expansionism. Yet, Texas would be a good boost for American cotton production and provide tons more land.
the Treaty of Guadalupe ended the Mexican-American War, but it started a whole new debate about the extension of slavery with Northerners rallying around the Wilmot Proviso(which proposed that the Mexican Cession lands to be free oil); however, the Southerners shot it down. The southern senators had blocked the passage of the proviso. The debate over slavery in the area of the Mexican Cession threatened to disrupt the ranks of both the Whigs and Democrats and split the national politics along North-South sectional lines. In 1848, President Polk was broken in health due to overwork and chronic diarrhea and pledges himself to a single term. THe Democratic National Convention at Baltimore turned to an aging leader, General Lewis Cass, a veteran of the War of 1812. He was a senator and diplomat of wide experience and had considerable ability and was the originator(father) of popular sovereignty. This was the doctrine that stated that the sovereign people of a territory, under the general principles of Constitution, should themselves determine the status of slavery. In easier terms, the doctrine applied to slavery, stating that the people in the territories should decide to legalize it or not. It was good and liked by politicians because it was a compromise between the extremes of the North and South, and it stuck with the idea of self-determination, but it could spread slavery. The public liked it because it accorded with the democratic tradition of self-determination which means that it is (free choice of one's own acts or states without external compulsion. Politicians liked it because it seemed a comfortable compromise between the free-soilers' bid for a ban on slavery in the territories and southern demands that Congress protect slavery in the territories.
sectional tensions were further strained in 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom's Cabin, a popular book that awakened the passions of the North toward the evils of slavery. Dismayed by the passage of the Fugitive Slave Law, she was determined to awaken the North to the wickedness of slavery by laying bare its terrible inhumanity, especially the cruel splitting of families. Her wildly popular book relied on powerful imagery and touching pathos. "God wrote it" she explained in later years-a reminder that the deeper sources of her antislavery sentiments lay in the evangelical religious crusades of the Second Great Awakening. The success of the novel at home and abroad was sensational. Several thousands of copies got sold and it made slavery appear almost as evil as it really was. When she was introduced to President Lincoln in 1862, he said "So you're the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war". And actually the book, Uncle Tom's Cabin did help start the Civil War. The South said the book was "vile wretch in petticoats." The novel was immensely popular abroad, especially in Britain and France. England sensed the triumph of the North and that it would spell the end of the slave system. The governments in London and Paris seriously considered intervening on behalf of the South, but they were sobered by the realization that many of their own people, aroused by the "Tommania," might not support them. The South cried foul, staying Stowe's portrayal of slavery was wrong and unfair. The book helped Britain stay out of the Civil War because its people, who had read the book and had now denounced slavery because they sympathized with Uncle Tom, wouldn't allow intervention on behalf of the South.
on March 6,, 1857 the Dred Scott decision was handed down by the Supreme Court. Dred Scott was a slave whose master took him north into free states where he lived for many years. After his master's death, he sued for his freedom from his new master, claiming that he had been in free territory and was therefore free. The Missouri Supreme Court agreed, freeing him, but his new master appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which overruled the decision. He lived with his master for five years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. Backed by interested abolitionists, he sued for freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil. The Supreme Court ruled that Dred Scott was a black slave and not a citizen, and therefore could not sue in federal courts. This part of ruling, denied black their citizenship, seriously menaced the precarious position of the South's quarter-million free blacks. Under the leadership of emaciated Chief Justice Roger B. Taney from the slave state of Maryland. A judgement on the larger issue of slavery in the territories seemed desirable, particularly to forestall arguments by two free-soil justices who were preparing dissenting opinions. The prosouthern majority evidently hoped in this way to lay the odious question to rest. A majority of the court decreed that because a slave was private property, he or she could be taken into any territory and legally held there in slavery. The reasoning was that the 15th Amendment clearly forbade Congress to deprive people of their property without due process of law. Now the Court rules that the Compromise of 1820 has been unconstitutional all along: Congress had no power to ban slavery from the territories, regardless even of what the territorial legislatures themselves might want.
Lincoln, as Republican nominee for the Senate seat, boldly challenged Douglas to a series of joint debates. Douglas promptly accepted Lincoln's challenge and seven meetings was famed Lincoln-Douglas debates were arranged from August to OCtober 1858. Lincoln rashly challenged Douglas, the nation's most devastating debater, to a series of seven debates, which the Senator accepted, and despite expectations of failure, Lincoln held his own. The most famous debate came at Freeport, Illinois, where Lincoln essentially asked "Mr. Douglas, if the people of a territory voted slavery down, despite the Supreme Court saying that they could not do so (point 2 of the Dred Scott decision) which side would you support, the people or the Supreme Court?" Douglas and some southerners had already publicly answered the Freeport question. He replied to Lincoln which became known as the Freeport Doctrine No matter, how the Supreme Court ruled, Douglas argued, slavery would stay down if the people voted it down. Laws to protect slavery would have to be passed by the territorial legislatures. These would not be forthcoming in the absence of popular approval, and black bondage would soon disappear. Douglas defeated Lincoln for the Senate seat. ALthough Douglas won in Illinois, he hurt his chance of winning the presidency while further splitting his splintering party. After his opposition to the Lecompton Constitution for Kansas and his further defiance of the Supreme Court at Freeport, Southern Democrats were determined to break up the party(and the Union) rather than accept him. The Lincoln-Douglas debate platform thus proved to be one of the preliminary battlefields of the Civil War.
1863, declared all slaves in rebelling states to be free but did not affect slavery, in non-rebelling Border States. The proclamation closed the door on possible compromise with the South and encouraged thousands of Southern slaves to flee to Union lines. McClellan's men found a copy of Lee's plans (as wrapping for cigars) and were able to stop the Southerners at Antietam Creek on September 17, 1862 in one of the bloodiest days of the Civil War. Jefferson Davis was never so close to victory as he was that day, since European powers were very close to helping the South, but after the Union army displayed unexpected power at Antietam, that help faded. Antietam was also the Union display of power that Lincoln needed to announce his Emancipation Proclamation, which didn't actually free the slaves, but gave the general idea; it was announced on January 1, 1863. Lincoln said the slaves would be free in the seceded states (but not the border as doing so might anger them into seceding too). Now, the war wasn't just to save the Union, it was to free the slaves as well. This gave the war a moral purpose(end slavery) to go with its political purpose(restore the union). The Emancipation Proclamation freed the slaves in not-yet-conquered Southern territories, but salve in the Border States and the conquered territories were not liberated since doing so might make them go to the South; Lincoln freed the slaves where he couldn't and wouldn't free the slaves where he could. The proclamation was very controversial, as many soldiers refused to fight for abolition and deserted. However, since many slaves, upon hearing the proclamation, left their plantations, the Emancipation Proclamation did succeed in one of its purposes: to undermine the labor of the South. Angry Southerners cried that Lincoln was stirring up trouble and trying to incite a slave insurrection.