38 terms

ASM 104 Bones and Stones

Binomial nomenclature
System of assigning each organism a scientific name that consists of two parts.
Kingdom or domain
The broadest level of classification as developed by Linnaeus.
Process of evolution
Natural selection or survival of the fittest
A clade
Refers to a specific group in a cladogram
Molecular clock
A hypothesis in which one can estimate the number of genetic mutations in an organism to determine evolutionary time of a species.
The 3 key areas of evidence for evolution.
Fossils, phylogeny, and genetics
The bones of a bird's wing, a human's arm, a whale's flipper are all examples of what?
Homologous structures. Similar in structure but different in function. This similarity suggests a common ancestor.
A vestigial structure
A structure that is reduced in size and seems to be a "leftover" from a previous ancestor.
What happens when there is a split in a phylogenetic tree or branch.
speciation- a new species develops as a result of a new derived character.
Structures that are similar in function but different in structure is called what?
Analogous structures. Example would be a bird's wing, and a butterfly wing.
Charles Darwin
The name of the scientist who first developed the concept of survival of the fittest and evolutionary theory.
The term used to refer to the structural and anatomical features of an organism.
The language scientists have adopted in the naming and classification of life.
Physical anthropology or Bioanthropology
The subfield of anthropology that studies human evolution.
The science of naming and classifying organisms is called this.
Refers to the evolutionary history of an organism
The name of the botanist who developed our current classification of life.
Carolus Linneaus
In modern taxonomy what is currently used to name and classify life which also supports more traditional methods of classification?
Refers to a group of organisms and is the plural form of taxon.
An organism's response to change which may result in a change in anatomy or morphology.
The changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent generations.
Cladogram or phylogenetic tree
This tool can show how species share derived characters and share a common ancestor.
The process of walking upright on two legs.
The term used to describe a protruding face as seen in many primates.
Name of a primate that is a mixture of both prosimian and anthropoid traits with a partially closed eye socket.
foramen magnum
The name of the opening found at base of skull that connects the spine and suggests degree of bipedalism.
What did DNA testing show in Cheddar Man, a 10,000 year old Homo sapien in England?
English ancestors had dark skin and blue eyes
sagittal crest
Name of the ridge seen on top of many hominoid skulls and the male gorilla.
Where was Lucy, an Australopithecus afarensis found?
Hadar, Ethiopia
Prehensile tail
The type of tail seen in New World monkeys.
Post-orbital plate
A structure that is closed in anthropoids. Old World monkeys, apes and humans.
Human dental formula. 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, 3 molars
Prosimian and New World monkey dental formula. 2 incisors, 1 canine, 3 premolars, 3 molars
An action that involves swinging from branch to branch.
Tree dwelling primates.
Dental comb
A characteristic seen in Prosimians except for the Tarsier.
Ardipithecus ramidus -before or after Lucy?
The species that lived a million years before Lucy.
Old World, New World, Apes, and Humans