40 terms

This set covers Abeka Physics Chapter 4: "The Gaseous State" (pages 49-67).

nitrogen

the most abundant gas in earth's atmosphere

air pressure

term for the pressure created when air molecules hit each other and any surface exposed to them

vacuum

term for the total absence of air or any other matter

atmospheric pressure

term for gravity's pull on air molecules

True

True or False: Air has weight.

fluids

Gases and liquids are both ____-- that is, they both flow.

Archimedes' principle

principle that states that the weight lost by an object suspended in a fluid equals the weight of the displaced fluid

Bernoulli's principle

principle that states that lateral pressure decreases as the rate of flow increases

airfoil

term for any object with surfaces designed to create lift into the air

narrower, velocity

According to the principle of continuity, a fluid funneled into a _____ channel gains _____.

"horror vacui"

the ancient scientific principle that states that a vacuum is impossible to create because nature immediately fills any empty space with the nearest matter it can find

Aristotle

Greek philosopher who taught "horror vacui"

No

Is the principle of "horror vacui" true?

Evangelista Torricelli

scientist credited with inventing the first barometer

mercury barometer

preferred instrument that measures atmospheric pressure using mercury

Blaise Pascal

Christian physicist and philosopher who discovered that there was a lower column of mercury in a barometer at a higher elevation

standard atmospheric pressure

term for the pressure that will support a mercury column exactly 460 mm tall at 0 degrees C

1.0 atm, 760 mm Hg, 760 torr

Give standard atmospheric pressure in atm, mm Hg, and torr, respectively.

manometer

pressure gauge that measures atmospheric pressure by comparing it to the pressure of a gas under investigation

gauge pressure

term for the difference in height between the columns of an open-ended manometer

absolute pressure

term for the pressure due only to a gas itself

Add or subtract the gauge pressure from the atmospheric pressure.

How can one find absolute pressure using the gauge pressure from a manometer?

aneroid barometer

instrument that measures atmospheric pressure without mercury and is widely used

inverse proportion

type of relationship in which on quantity increases as another decreases

Boyles's Law

law that states that at a constant temperature the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure

P1V1 = P2V2

equation for Boyles's Law

absolute zero (0 K)

the lowest temperature at which matter can exist

absolute temperature

term for temperature expressed in Kelvin

direct proportion

type of relationship in which one quantity increases and another increases by the same factor

Charles's Law

law that states that at constant pressure, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature

V1/T1 = V2/T2

formula for Charles's Law

P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2

equation for the combined gas law

Avogadro's Law

law that states that at a given temperature and pressure, two gases of the same volume have the same number of molecules

mole

unit that represents approximately 6.022 x 10^23 molecules

R

letter that represents the universal gas constant

0.0821 L atm/K mole

the value of the universal gas constant (with units)

PV = nRT

formula for the ideal gas law

pneumatic device

term for any device that transports air or that is driven by air pressure

entrained

Fluid that is caught up and carried along by a fluid stream nearby is said to be _____.

siphon

term for a simple device for transferring liquid from a higher container to a lower container