40 terms

Abeka Physics Chapter 4

This set covers Abeka Physics Chapter 4: "The Gaseous State" (pages 49-67).
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nitrogen
the most abundant gas in earth's atmosphere
air pressure
term for the pressure created when air molecules hit each other and any surface exposed to them
vacuum
term for the total absence of air or any other matter
atmospheric pressure
term for gravity's pull on air molecules
True
True or False: Air has weight.
fluids
Gases and liquids are both ____-- that is, they both flow.
Archimedes' principle
principle that states that the weight lost by an object suspended in a fluid equals the weight of the displaced fluid
Bernoulli's principle
principle that states that lateral pressure decreases as the rate of flow increases
airfoil
term for any object with surfaces designed to create lift into the air
narrower, velocity
According to the principle of continuity, a fluid funneled into a _____ channel gains _____.
"horror vacui"
the ancient scientific principle that states that a vacuum is impossible to create because nature immediately fills any empty space with the nearest matter it can find
Aristotle
Greek philosopher who taught "horror vacui"
No
Is the principle of "horror vacui" true?
Evangelista Torricelli
scientist credited with inventing the first barometer
mercury barometer
preferred instrument that measures atmospheric pressure using mercury
Blaise Pascal
Christian physicist and philosopher who discovered that there was a lower column of mercury in a barometer at a higher elevation
standard atmospheric pressure
term for the pressure that will support a mercury column exactly 460 mm tall at 0 degrees C
1.0 atm, 760 mm Hg, 760 torr
Give standard atmospheric pressure in atm, mm Hg, and torr, respectively.
manometer
pressure gauge that measures atmospheric pressure by comparing it to the pressure of a gas under investigation
gauge pressure
term for the difference in height between the columns of an open-ended manometer
absolute pressure
term for the pressure due only to a gas itself
Add or subtract the gauge pressure from the atmospheric pressure.
How can one find absolute pressure using the gauge pressure from a manometer?
aneroid barometer
instrument that measures atmospheric pressure without mercury and is widely used
inverse proportion
type of relationship in which on quantity increases as another decreases
Boyles's Law
law that states that at a constant temperature the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure
P1V1 = P2V2
equation for Boyles's Law
absolute zero (0 K)
the lowest temperature at which matter can exist
absolute temperature
term for temperature expressed in Kelvin
direct proportion
type of relationship in which one quantity increases and another increases by the same factor
Charles's Law
law that states that at constant pressure, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature
V1/T1 = V2/T2
formula for Charles's Law
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
equation for the combined gas law
Avogadro's Law
law that states that at a given temperature and pressure, two gases of the same volume have the same number of molecules
mole
unit that represents approximately 6.022 x 10^23 molecules
R
letter that represents the universal gas constant
0.0821 L atm/K mole
the value of the universal gas constant (with units)
PV = nRT
formula for the ideal gas law
pneumatic device
term for any device that transports air or that is driven by air pressure
entrained
Fluid that is caught up and carried along by a fluid stream nearby is said to be _____.
siphon
term for a simple device for transferring liquid from a higher container to a lower container
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