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Terms in this set (42)
What were some advantages of Mongol rule.
Normally, they didn't impose culture, language or religion. The empire was so big, it would have been difficult anyway.
World trade flourished under Mongol rule. As such, practices of one culture were spread to another-- this is called cultural diffusion. BTW, it also facilitated the spread of disease.
What was the importance of Iron to mongols?
They were superior horsemen and warriors. Iron was used for stirrups and bridles, wagons and weapons. The iron head of arrows enabled greater speed, distance and accuracy.
What were the characteristics of Mongol conquest and military tactics?
They seldom outnumbered their enemies. but they were extraoridanry riders and utilized superior bows and arrows. The central asian bow could shoot 1/3 farther than other bows. Archers began the fight, then the Mongols charged with sword, lance, javelin and mace. They also used flaming arrows and projectiles. They were ruthless. Surrender was the only option.
A secondary khan based in persia. the Il-khans khangate was founded by Hulegu, a grandson of ghengis khan, and was based at Tabriz in the Iranian province of Azerbaijan. controlled much of iraq and iran.
Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam. Also known as the Kipchak Horde. (p. 333)
Grandson of Genghis Khan, ruled the Ilkhan part of the empire. He and his forces conquered Persia, leaving a path of death and destruction in their wake. Islam became a metter of political rivalry.
Mongol army after conquest. how different.
Once the conquered peoples had been subdued, they took a keen interest in their arts and learning.
Impact of Budhism and Islam on Mongols.
The Mongol Empire had a lasting impact, unifying large regions, some of which (such as eastern and western Russia and the western parts of China) remain unified today, albeit under different rulership. The Mongols, except the main population, might have been assimilated into local populations after the fall of the empire, and some of these descendants adopted local religions — for example, the eastern Khanates largely adopted Buddhism, and the western Khanates adopted Islam, largely under Sufi influence
Last of the Mongol Great Khans (r. 1260-1294) and founder of the Yuan Empire. (p. 351)
Khubilai Khan and confucionism.
gave his oldest son a chinese name and had confucionists participate in his education.
buddhist religious leaders that ruled in Mongolia and Tibet that became popular with some mongol rulers.
the imperial dynasty of China from 1279 to 1368, capital was beijing.
Ranking of peoples under Yuan empire
mongols then cental asians and middle easteners, thennorther chinese and finally southern chinese.
Medicine under Yuan
doctors were encouraged.
confucions under Yuan
diminished in importance.
stressed census taking and tax collecting
Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan.
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan
Mongol rule in the 13th century
By the middle of the thirteenth century, the Mongols had formed the largest contiguous empire in the world, uniting Chinese, Islamic, Iranian, Central Asian, and nomadic cultures within an overarching Mongol sensibility.
Hülegü's dynasty—the Ilkhanids, or Lesser Khans—ruled this area, called Greater Iran, until about 1353. After their rapid gain of power in the Muslim world, the Mongol Ilkhanids nominally reported to the Great Khan of the Yuan dynasty in China, and in the process imported Chinese models to better define their tastes. However, the new rulers were greatly impressed by the long-established traditions of Iran, with its prosperous urban centers and thriving economy, and they quickly assimilated the local culture. The Mongol influence on Iranian and Islamic culture gave birth to an extraordinary period in Islamic art that combined well-established traditions with the new visual language transmitted from eastern Asia.
Trade routes in the 13th-!5th centuries
The Silk Road reached its peak during the Mongolian Empire (13th century) when China and Central Asia were controlled by Mongol Khans, which were strong proponent of trade even if they were ruthless conquerors. At the same time relationships between Europe and China were renewed, notably after the voyages of Marco Polo (1271-1292).
bows, use of stirrups, decimal system (men divided into groups of 10, 100, 1000 etc.), catapults and from a peaceful standpoint the pony express.
mongol tax farming
A government's use of private collectors to collect taxes. Individuals or corporations contract with the government to collect a fixed amount for the government and are permitted to keep as profit everything they collect over that amount. (p. 334). Over the long term, this drove landowners into debt and servitude. this caused productivity to decline making it hard to supply the army, do the govt seized the land. S
Mongols and the orthodox
With the initial Mongol onslaught, many churches and monasteries were looted and destroyed while countless adherents to the church and scores of clergy were killed; those who survived often were taken prisoner and enslaved (Dmytryshyn, 121). The mere shock of the force and size of the Mongol army was devastating. The distress was just as political and economic in nature as it was social and spiritual. The Mongol forces claimed that they were sent by God, and the Russians believed that the Mongols were indeed sent by God as a punishment for their sins. The Orthodox Church would become a powerful beacon during the "darker" years of the Mongol subjugation
The prince that made Moscow the new capital of Russia, and he overthrew the Mongols that were dominating Russia.
North vietnam.. clashed frequently with champa, south vietnam.
Port city in the modern south Arabian country of Yemen. It has been a major trading center in the Indian Ocean since ancient times.
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.
1200-1526 Muslims from the Turkey and Central Asia invaded India having horses over India's elephants and took over their capital naming it Delhi and ruled for 300 years with Sultans
difference between mali and delhi sultinate
Mali depended on trans saharan trade. long distance trade played only a minor role in Delhi.
Characteristic cargo and passenger ships of the Arabian Sea.
A very large flatbottom sailing ship produced in the Tang and Song Empires, specially designed for long-distance commercial travel. (p. 288)
Role of women in mongol society
In a nomadic society each member of the society was critical to the survival of the group. Another explanation for Mongol success is that women played a very important role in the economy, they took care of the animals if need be. The Mongols had total male mobility for warfare. This made the Mongols a more daunting force than they might have been. Women also played a role in the military. Many women who actually took part in battle were mentioned in Mongol, Chinese, and Persian chronicles. Women were trained for the miliatry. Mongol women had rights and privileges that were not accorded to most East Asian women. Mongol women had the right to own property and to divorce. Although we don't know about ordinary Mongol women, we do know about prominent Mongol women among the elite. They were mentioned repeatedly in Mongol, Chinese, and European chronicles of the 13th century.
decline of the mongol empire
With the death of Ilkhan Abu Said Bahatur in 1335, the Mongol rule in Persia fell into political anarchy. A year later his successor was killed by an Oirat governor and the Ilkhanate was divided between the Suldus, the Jalayir, Qasarid Togha Temür (d.1353) and Persian warlords. Using the dissolution, the Georgians had already pushed out the Mongols when Uyghur commander Eretna established an independent state (Ertenids) in Anatolia in 1336. Following the downfall of their Mongol masters, all-time loyal vassal Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was threatened by the Mamluks more. Alongside the lost of Mongol domain in Persia, Mongol rulers in China and Chagatai Khanate were in a turmoil so deep that it threatened continuation of their power. Much fear arose outside the Mongol court. The Black Death began in the densely inhabited Mongol dominions from 1313 to 1331. This disastrous plague devastated all khanates, cutting off commercial ties and killing off millions. By the end of the 14th century, it may have taken 70-100 million lives in Africa, Asia and Europe.
Port city in modern city of Malaysia. founded about 1400 as a trading center on the strait of mallaca.
region of western india famous. for trade and manufacturing
Southwest coast of India, epicenter of spice trade. Pepper originated in the Wester Ghats here.
Genghis's son who becomes great Khan. Invades Europe. his death stops the expansion into europe.
Tsars connection to moscow.
Mongols favored moscow because Alaxander Nevski had persuaded princes to submit to the Mongols. First Tszr, Ivan III was the prince of Moscow.
Mongol rule in russia and china
Mongols accepted and exchanged trade goods with Russian cities and agricultural groupings.
-The Golden Horde ruled in Russia until the the mid fourteenth century.
-Mongols outlawed marriage marriage between Mongols and the Chinese.
-Mongols did not allow Chinese people to learn the Mongol language.
-Mongols took revenue from the Chinese
-foreign administrators were placed in charge
-Mongols administrative staff was made up of Arabs, Persians, and Europeans like Marco Polo
-Mongols resisted Chinese culture
-Mongols ended Confucian privileges
-took apart Confucian educational and examination system
-Mongols allowed construction of churches, temples, and shrines
-tolerated cultural and religion traditions like Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity
The Mongols rule in China and Russia was very strict and organized but they also allowed freedom in such things as religion.
compare mongol rule in russia and china
russia treated more like a vassal state. Local rule. China was more centralized rule from beijing.
Equatorial region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. It is characterized by generally warm or hot temperatures year-round, though much variation exists due to altitude and other factors. (370)
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