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Digestive - Fecal
Metabolic - urine, methane, heat

What are some of the losses of food inputs?

Rumen, Reticulum, omasum, and abomasum

What are the four parts of the cow stomach in order?

Large Intestines

Where does most of the water absorption take place in the GI tract?

Gastric mucosa (stomach)

This organ contributes pepsin to the digestion process.


This organ contributes trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pancreatic lipase to the digestion process.

Intestinal mucosa

This organ contributes aminopeptidase, dipeptidase, maltase, and lactase to the digestion process.

VFAs, microbial protein, and gasses (CO2 and CH4)

What are the products of microflora activity in the rumen?

Nutrition goes down and fiber goes up

What happens when grasses start to flower?

Ca deficiency leads to milk fever
Poor growth of grass in unusual climates
Build up of Pasture worms

What are some problems with only feeding cows grass?

Exclude air, reduce moisture, chop, add sugar, add inoculants

What can you do to increase rapid fermentation of silage?

Pathogenic microorganisms
Toxic chemicals
Excess acidity

What are some potential hazards of silage fermentation?

Enterobacteria (E. coli), causes diarrhea

What could happen to silage if manure was spread on grass crop, low fermentation rates, and the silage had low acid/high NH3?

Listeria monocytogenes, causes "silage eye" and listeriosis

The silage crop was contaminated with soil, had wet silage, pH >4.5, oxygen, and had mold.

Clostridium botulinum, causes botulism (death)

The silage was contaminated with carcases, wet, and pH >4.6.


The crop was chopped very short and the pH <4.0.

Decrease in silage intake during winter
Excessive intake of minerals
Preference for straw
urine drinking
Low milk fat %

What are some clinical signs of acidosis?


What animal is a particulate feeder, has a crop, glandular stomach (proventriculus), and a muscular stomach (gizzard).


What type of feeding behavior does a cow exhibit?

Trickle feeder

What kind of feeding behavior does a horse or rabbit exhibit?

Variation: large meals or daily small meals

What kind of feeding behavior do carnivores and omnivores exhibit?

Crude protein and Ether extract are not very accurate. Some crude fiber is dissolved during extraction. NFE (carbohydrates) is just whatever is left, not accurate.

What are some of the problems with TDN?


What mineral interacts with Calcium?

Vitamin E

What vitamin interacts with Selenium?

Linoleic acid

What fatty acid interacts with vitamin E?


What is the most frequently overlooked component of a diet?


What is a very dangerous compound that is associated with too much water and mold growth in a feed?

lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose

What fibers are insoluble in neutral detergent?

lignin and cellulose

What fibers are insoluble in acid detergent?

Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins

What are some sources of energy?


What source of energy yields the highest gross energy?

Energy released when a dietary raw material is completely combusted in an atmosphere of oxygen

What is gross energy?

DE = GE - fecal energy

What is digestible energy?

ME = GE - (fecal + urine + methane gas)

What is metabolizable energy?

NE = GE - (fecal + urine + methane gas + heat loss)

What is net energy?

Net energy

What is the most accurate estimate of dietary energy?

Digestible energy

What is the best energy estimate for pigs?

Metabolizable energy

What is the best energy estimate for poultry?

Unsaturated fatty acids

What type of fatty acids impair fiber digestion and depress DMI?

Saturated fatty acids

Which fatty acids do not upset rumen function?

Acetate, Butyrate, and propionate

Pyruvic acid differentiates into which three volatile fatty acids?

Metabolizable energy, because methane losses are high

What is the best energy estimate for ruminants?

Add fiber to the diet

What do you do to the diet if there is milk fat depression in your dairy cows?

Goes down

In non-ruminatnts, as fiber content of the feed goes up what happens to the digestible energy?

Yes, more microflora in intestines

Can older animals digest fiber better than younger ones?

Chemical bonds (C O H N) in feeds

What can NIRS (Near infra-red spectroscopy) detect?

amino acids

What makes up proteins?

Chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds

What is a primary protein structure?

Sequence of amino acids are linked by hydrogen bonds creating pleated sheets or a alpha helix

What is a secondary protein structure?

Folding of alpha helixes and pleated sheets

What is a tertiary protein structure?

A protein structure consisting of more than one amino acid chain

What is a quartenary protein structure?

animal co-products, milk co-products, and fish products

What are some animal protein sources?

Oilseeds and legumes

What are some plant protein sources?

Not all nitrogen in a feed is from protein and does not consider protein quality

What are some problems with crude protein?


What protein is used to measure quality?

Cannot be synthesized in vivo, must be in diet

What is the definition of essential amino acids?

Can be synthesized in vivo, but body can not keep up with needs

What is the definition of conditionally essential amino acids?

Can be synthesized in vivo

What is the definition of Non-essential amino acids?


What is usually the first limiting amino acid?

Leaf/germ proteins, not seed/tuber proteins

Which plant proteins are better for non-ruminants?

No, only those absorbed in the small intestines

Are amino acids broken down in the large intestine of use to the animal?

Undigestible, undegradable protein

What is UUDP?

UDP to DUP to MP
RDP to microbial protein to MP
Urea to microbial protein to MP

What are some pathways to get Metabolizable protein?

Not soluble in water, but usually soluble in non-polar organic solvents. Usually related to fatty acids

What is the definition of a lipid?

C18:0 Chain with 18 carbon atoms and 0 unsaturated bonds (Stearic acid)
C18:2 Chain with 18 carbon atoms and 2 unsaturated bonds (linoleic acid)


A long chain of fatty acids with a terminal methyl group and carboxyl group

What is a fatty acid?

Animal fats

What type of fats are mostly saturated?

Plant fats

What types of fats are mostly unsaturated?

Pancreatic lipase, emulsification, micelle formation, and droplet formation

What are some of the ways that fats are digested?

FA absorbed by stomach, some TAG and DAG from gastric lipase enters small intestine

In what ways are lipids absorbed in young, pre-weaned mammals?

Micelles are formed by bile salts and pancreatic colipase. Then transported by FA binding to FA binding protein and absorbed (expends energy)

How are lipids absorbed in small intestines?

n-6 and n-3 fatty acids

What types of fatty acids must be in diets that are precursors for many other fatty acids and are involved in maintaining cell membranes?

An elongase

What aids in lengthening of a fatty acid?

A desaturase

What aids in decreasing saturated bonds in a fatty acid chain?

FA compete with EFA for enzymes and some problems with efficiency further down the path

What are some problems with fatty acid conversions?

It can reduce delta-6 desaturase activity

What can Zn deficiency do to lipid absorption?

High genetic potential, too much non-essential fats in diet and too much Ca in diet

What are some of the reasons that animal might be Zn deficient?

Micro encapsulation and antioxidants

What are some ways that EFAs are made more stable during production?

More unstable (fresh and cooked), changes texture of meat, and potential of oxidizing in vivo

What are some increased unsaturated fat problems in pigs?


What type of meat has more unsaturated fatty acids?

Glucose - Fructose

What is sucrose?

Glucose - Galactose

What is Lactose?

Glucose - Glucose

What is Maltose?

Mainly alpha 1-4 bonds (cereal seeds, tubers)

What kind of bonds are in starch?

Alpha 1-4 bonds and alpha 1-6 bonds (found in waxy cereals)

What kind of bonds are in amylopectin?

Mainly beta 1-6 bonds (main structural polysaccharide of plant walls)

What kind of bonds are in cellulose?

Cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and oligosaccharides

What are some non-digestible, fermentable polysaccharides?

Binds most of phosphorous in diets made of plants

What is phytic acid?

No, do not have endogenous phytase

Can animals break down phytic acid?

Their solubility in water

How are non-starch carbohydrates usually classified?

Alpha amylase, usually takes place in duodenum

What enzyme digests starches and simple sugars?

little digestion in small intestine, fermented into VFAs in caecum

How are non-starch polysaccharides digested?

saliva and pancreas

What is the source of alpha amylase?

Processing can help (heating, cooking) before feeding

What can be done to increase digestion of crystalline starch?

Calcium, Phosphorous, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, Magnesium, Sulphur

What are the macro minerals?


What mineral is a cofactor in the TCA cycle?

Na, K, Cl

What minerals are important in maintaining electrolyte balance across membranes?

Ca, P, Mg

What are some important minerals in bone formation?

Muscle contraction/relaxation
Neuronal transmission
Blood coagulation
Enzyme activation

Why is calcium important?

ATP and creatine phosphates
Phosphate buffers

Why is phosphorous important?


What vitamin is required for Ca absorption?

Post-paturient hypocalcaemia

What is milk fever?

Oral dose of Ca salts (burogluconate), not intravenous

What is a cure for milk fever?

Component of Haemoglobin, ferrous sulphate and chloride

Why is iron important and what is a good source of it?

Cytochrome oxidase, Tyrosinase, and Monoamine oxidase

What enzyme systems are associated with Copper?

It is an essential element for gene expression

Why is zinc important?

Blind staggers, alkali disease

What is an effect of too much selenium?

Humans, bats and guinea pigs

Vitamin C can be synthesized by most animals except _______.

Sight, maintenance of integrity of epithelial cells

What are the major functions of Vitamin A?

Regulation of intestinal absorption and metabolism of calcium

What are the major functions of Vitamin D?

Anti-oxidant, immunity

What are the major functions of Vitamin E?

Synthesis of compounds involved in coagulation

What are the major functions of Vitamin K?

Vitamin A, D, E, and K

What are the fat soluble vitamins?

Beta carotene, felids require pre-formed Vitamin A though

What is a naturally occurring pre-cursor of vitamin A?

Drying and degenerative disease of the cornea, vitamin A deficiency

What is Xerophthalmia?


What is the most active form of D3 in the body?

Increased clotting time, minor injury can lead to internal haemorrhage

What are some signs of Vitamin K deficiency?

Carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism

What are some important functions of B Vitamins?

Poultry: Anorexia, unsteady gait, stargazing
Young Ruminants: listlessness, circling movements, stargazing, muscle tremors

What are some common problems with thiamine deficiency?

Disorders of nervous, GI and immune systems
Reducted growth rate
Skin lesions

What are some symptoms of panthothenic acid deficiency?

Vitamins A, D, and B12

Which vitamins are stored in liver for a considerable amount of time?


What is the major protease enzyme in non-ruminant diets?

No antibiotics, contains phosphate buffers

What is unique about ruminant saliva?

Eicosapentaenoic acid C20:5

Which fatty acid that is essential to many animal diets is only found in animals?

Specific molecule with a precise metabolic function

What is a nutrient?

No, do not feed a lot of liver

Can cats regulate the uptake of Vitamin A?

Alpha Tocopherol

What is the best form of Vitamin E?

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