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Digestive - Fecal
Metabolic - urine, methane, heat
What are some of the losses of food inputs?
Rumen, Reticulum, omasum, and abomasum
What are the four parts of the cow stomach in order?
Where does most of the water absorption take place in the GI tract?
Gastric mucosa (stomach)
This organ contributes pepsin to the digestion process.
This organ contributes trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pancreatic lipase to the digestion process.
This organ contributes aminopeptidase, dipeptidase, maltase, and lactase to the digestion process.
VFAs, microbial protein, and gasses (CO2 and CH4)
What are the products of microflora activity in the rumen?
Nutrition goes down and fiber goes up
What happens when grasses start to flower?
Ca deficiency leads to milk fever
Poor growth of grass in unusual climates
Build up of Pasture worms
What are some problems with only feeding cows grass?
Exclude air, reduce moisture, chop, add sugar, add inoculants
What can you do to increase rapid fermentation of silage?
What are some potential hazards of silage fermentation?
Enterobacteria (E. coli), causes diarrhea
What could happen to silage if manure was spread on grass crop, low fermentation rates, and the silage had low acid/high NH3?
Listeria monocytogenes, causes "silage eye" and listeriosis
The silage crop was contaminated with soil, had wet silage, pH >4.5, oxygen, and had mold.
Clostridium botulinum, causes botulism (death)
The silage was contaminated with carcases, wet, and pH >4.6.
The crop was chopped very short and the pH <4.0.
Decrease in silage intake during winter
Excessive intake of minerals
Preference for straw
Low milk fat %
What are some clinical signs of acidosis?
What animal is a particulate feeder, has a crop, glandular stomach (proventriculus), and a muscular stomach (gizzard).
What type of feeding behavior does a cow exhibit?
What kind of feeding behavior does a horse or rabbit exhibit?
Variation: large meals or daily small meals
What kind of feeding behavior do carnivores and omnivores exhibit?
Crude protein and Ether extract are not very accurate. Some crude fiber is dissolved during extraction. NFE (carbohydrates) is just whatever is left, not accurate.
What are some of the problems with TDN?
What mineral interacts with Calcium?
What vitamin interacts with Selenium?
What fatty acid interacts with vitamin E?
What is the most frequently overlooked component of a diet?
What is a very dangerous compound that is associated with too much water and mold growth in a feed?
lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose
What fibers are insoluble in neutral detergent?
lignin and cellulose
What fibers are insoluble in acid detergent?
Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
What are some sources of energy?
What source of energy yields the highest gross energy?
Energy released when a dietary raw material is completely combusted in an atmosphere of oxygen
What is gross energy?
DE = GE - fecal energy
What is digestible energy?
ME = GE - (fecal + urine + methane gas)
What is metabolizable energy?
NE = GE - (fecal + urine + methane gas + heat loss)
What is net energy?
What is the most accurate estimate of dietary energy?
What is the best energy estimate for pigs?
What is the best energy estimate for poultry?
Unsaturated fatty acids
What type of fatty acids impair fiber digestion and depress DMI?
Saturated fatty acids
Which fatty acids do not upset rumen function?
Acetate, Butyrate, and propionate
Pyruvic acid differentiates into which three volatile fatty acids?
Metabolizable energy, because methane losses are high
What is the best energy estimate for ruminants?
Add fiber to the diet
What do you do to the diet if there is milk fat depression in your dairy cows?
In non-ruminatnts, as fiber content of the feed goes up what happens to the digestible energy?
Yes, more microflora in intestines
Can older animals digest fiber better than younger ones?
Chemical bonds (C O H N) in feeds
What can NIRS (Near infra-red spectroscopy) detect?
What makes up proteins?
Chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
What is a primary protein structure?
Sequence of amino acids are linked by hydrogen bonds creating pleated sheets or a alpha helix
What is a secondary protein structure?
Folding of alpha helixes and pleated sheets
What is a tertiary protein structure?
A protein structure consisting of more than one amino acid chain
What is a quartenary protein structure?
animal co-products, milk co-products, and fish products
What are some animal protein sources?
Oilseeds and legumes
What are some plant protein sources?
Not all nitrogen in a feed is from protein and does not consider protein quality
What are some problems with crude protein?
What protein is used to measure quality?
Cannot be synthesized in vivo, must be in diet
What is the definition of essential amino acids?
Can be synthesized in vivo, but body can not keep up with needs
What is the definition of conditionally essential amino acids?
Can be synthesized in vivo
What is the definition of Non-essential amino acids?
What is usually the first limiting amino acid?
Leaf/germ proteins, not seed/tuber proteins
Which plant proteins are better for non-ruminants?
No, only those absorbed in the small intestines
Are amino acids broken down in the large intestine of use to the animal?
Undigestible, undegradable protein
What is UUDP?
UDP to DUP to MP
RDP to microbial protein to MP
Urea to microbial protein to MP
What are some pathways to get Metabolizable protein?
Not soluble in water, but usually soluble in non-polar organic solvents. Usually related to fatty acids
What is the definition of a lipid?
C18:0 Chain with 18 carbon atoms and 0 unsaturated bonds (Stearic acid)
C18:2 Chain with 18 carbon atoms and 2 unsaturated bonds (linoleic acid)
A long chain of fatty acids with a terminal methyl group and carboxyl group
What is a fatty acid?
What type of fats are mostly saturated?
What types of fats are mostly unsaturated?
Pancreatic lipase, emulsification, micelle formation, and droplet formation
What are some of the ways that fats are digested?
FA absorbed by stomach, some TAG and DAG from gastric lipase enters small intestine
In what ways are lipids absorbed in young, pre-weaned mammals?
Micelles are formed by bile salts and pancreatic colipase. Then transported by FA binding to FA binding protein and absorbed (expends energy)
How are lipids absorbed in small intestines?
n-6 and n-3 fatty acids
What types of fatty acids must be in diets that are precursors for many other fatty acids and are involved in maintaining cell membranes?
What aids in lengthening of a fatty acid?
What aids in decreasing saturated bonds in a fatty acid chain?
FA compete with EFA for enzymes and some problems with efficiency further down the path
What are some problems with fatty acid conversions?
It can reduce delta-6 desaturase activity
What can Zn deficiency do to lipid absorption?
High genetic potential, too much non-essential fats in diet and too much Ca in diet
What are some of the reasons that animal might be Zn deficient?
Micro encapsulation and antioxidants
What are some ways that EFAs are made more stable during production?
More unstable (fresh and cooked), changes texture of meat, and potential of oxidizing in vivo
What are some increased unsaturated fat problems in pigs?
What type of meat has more unsaturated fatty acids?
Glucose - Fructose
What is sucrose?
Glucose - Galactose
What is Lactose?
Glucose - Glucose
What is Maltose?
Mainly alpha 1-4 bonds (cereal seeds, tubers)
What kind of bonds are in starch?
Alpha 1-4 bonds and alpha 1-6 bonds (found in waxy cereals)
What kind of bonds are in amylopectin?
Mainly beta 1-6 bonds (main structural polysaccharide of plant walls)
What kind of bonds are in cellulose?
Cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and oligosaccharides
What are some non-digestible, fermentable polysaccharides?
Binds most of phosphorous in diets made of plants
What is phytic acid?
No, do not have endogenous phytase
Can animals break down phytic acid?
Their solubility in water
How are non-starch carbohydrates usually classified?
Alpha amylase, usually takes place in duodenum
What enzyme digests starches and simple sugars?
little digestion in small intestine, fermented into VFAs in caecum
How are non-starch polysaccharides digested?
saliva and pancreas
What is the source of alpha amylase?
Processing can help (heating, cooking) before feeding
What can be done to increase digestion of crystalline starch?
Calcium, Phosphorous, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, Magnesium, Sulphur
What are the macro minerals?
What mineral is a cofactor in the TCA cycle?
Na, K, Cl
What minerals are important in maintaining electrolyte balance across membranes?
Ca, P, Mg
What are some important minerals in bone formation?
Why is calcium important?
ATP and creatine phosphates
Why is phosphorous important?
What vitamin is required for Ca absorption?
What is milk fever?
Oral dose of Ca salts (burogluconate), not intravenous
What is a cure for milk fever?
Component of Haemoglobin, ferrous sulphate and chloride
Why is iron important and what is a good source of it?
Cytochrome oxidase, Tyrosinase, and Monoamine oxidase
What enzyme systems are associated with Copper?
It is an essential element for gene expression
Why is zinc important?
Blind staggers, alkali disease
What is an effect of too much selenium?
Humans, bats and guinea pigs
Vitamin C can be synthesized by most animals except _______.
Sight, maintenance of integrity of epithelial cells
What are the major functions of Vitamin A?
Regulation of intestinal absorption and metabolism of calcium
What are the major functions of Vitamin D?
What are the major functions of Vitamin E?
Synthesis of compounds involved in coagulation
What are the major functions of Vitamin K?
Vitamin A, D, E, and K
What are the fat soluble vitamins?
Beta carotene, felids require pre-formed Vitamin A though
What is a naturally occurring pre-cursor of vitamin A?
Drying and degenerative disease of the cornea, vitamin A deficiency
What is Xerophthalmia?
What is the most active form of D3 in the body?
Increased clotting time, minor injury can lead to internal haemorrhage
What are some signs of Vitamin K deficiency?
Carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism
What are some important functions of B Vitamins?
Poultry: Anorexia, unsteady gait, stargazing
Young Ruminants: listlessness, circling movements, stargazing, muscle tremors
What are some common problems with thiamine deficiency?
Disorders of nervous, GI and immune systems
Reducted growth rate
What are some symptoms of panthothenic acid deficiency?
Vitamins A, D, and B12
Which vitamins are stored in liver for a considerable amount of time?
What is the major protease enzyme in non-ruminant diets?
No antibiotics, contains phosphate buffers
What is unique about ruminant saliva?
Eicosapentaenoic acid C20:5
Which fatty acid that is essential to many animal diets is only found in animals?
Specific molecule with a precise metabolic function
What is a nutrient?
No, do not feed a lot of liver
Can cats regulate the uptake of Vitamin A?
What is the best form of Vitamin E?
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