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AP Psych Mid-Term Vocab (Chapter 7-8)
Terms in this set (97)
The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
Information processing Model
A framework used by cognitive psychologists to explain and describe mental processes. The model likens the thinking process to how a computer works. Just like a computer, the human mind takes in information, organizes and stores it to be retrieved at a later time
Levels of processing memory
1. shallow - structural
2. intermediate - acoustic/phonemic
3. deep processing - semantic (meaning)
Emphasizes the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed.
At shallow levels, info is processed in terms of physical and sensory aspects.
At deepest levels, info is analyzed in terms of its meaning.
The immediate, very brief recording of information in the memory system
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
The focus on a particular stimulus in a situation
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
STM (working memory)
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, before information is stored or forgotten.
Used to extend the memory through rehearsal. Grouping of information in STM. Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
A subdivision of declarative memory that contains factual information about specific events that you have encountered, tend to be easier to recall.
A subdivision of declarative memory that stores general knowledge, including the meanings of words and concepts, "mental almanac"
Memory for skills, including perceptual, motor, and cognitive skills required to complete tasks, knowing "how"
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare" (also called declarative memory)
Retention independent of conscious recollection, (Also called non-declarative or procedural memories)
The process of getting information out of memory storage.
A measure of memory in which the person needs only identifiable items that have been previously learned, as on a multiple choice test
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned later, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
Improved memory for items at the start of a list (rehearsed-LTM).
The words at end of a list are remembered more (heard recently-STM)
Serial position effect
Shows there is a distinguishable difference between LTM and STM. Free recall is better at the end, and then the start of a list, than in the middle. When retention of all items is plotted on a graph, a U-shaped curve is produced
Occurs when one is quite certain that they know a piece of information but feel blocked from retrieving it
Semantic network theory
Concepts are arranged in networks that represent the way that concepts are organized in the mind
Memories related to a specific, important, or surprising event that are recalled easily and with vivid imagery
The phenomenon through which memory retrieval is most efficient when an individual is in the same state of consciousness as they were when the memory was formed.
A memory process that selectively retrieves memories that match (are congruent with) one's mood
False details of a real event or recollection of an event that never occurred
It will take less time to relearn material we previously encoded, even if we have "forgotten" what we learned previously.
Learning new information interferes with the recall of older information
Older information learned previously interferes with the recall of information learned more recently
A biological condition in which an individual cannot encode new memories but can recall events already in memory
A biological condition in which an individual cannot recall events previously stored in memory
Neurons can strengthen connections between each other
The smallest units of sound used in a language
The smallest unit of meaningful sound
The particular word order of a language
The stages in how we learn language
stages include babbling, holophrastic, and telegraphic speech
Language acquisition device
The ability to learn a language rapidly as children( also called Nativist Theory of language acquisition).
Noam Chomsky theorized that humans are born with this device.
Misapplication of grammar rules that
occurs during language acquisition
Linguistic relativity hypothesis
Benjamin wharf theorized that the language we use might control, and in some ways limit, our thinking
The most typical example of a particular concept- an original form of something that serves as a standard
Mental pictures we create in our minds of the outside world
A problem-solving rule that guarantees the right solution by using a formula or other foolproof method
A problem-solving rule of thumb
rule that is generally, but not always, true that we can use to make a judgment in a situation
Judging a situation based on examples of similar situations that come to mind initially
Judging a situation based on how similar the aspects are to prototypes the person holds in his or her mind
Belief bias/belief perseverance
The tendency not to change our beliefs in the face of contradictory evidence
The tendency to look for evidence that confirms our beliefs and to ignore evidence that contradicts what we think is true
One's ability to solve problems that results with a single, correct answer.
One's ability to use creativity to solve problems with many possible solutions
Feelings or ideas that cause us to act toward a goal
Automatic behaviors performed in response to specific stimuli
Drive reduction theory
States that our behavior is motivated by biological needs. A need is one of our requirements for survival (food, water, shelter)
A psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a goal, giving purpose and direction to behavior.
An "excitatory state produced by a homeostatic disturbance", an instinctual need that has the power of inducing the behavior of an individual.
Biological needs (such as thirst). Drive reduction theory states that our behavior is motivated by biological needs
Learned drives. We learned that resources like money can get us food and water to satisfy our primary drives.
To maintain a balanced or constant internal state; regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
States that we seek an optimum level of excitement or arousal. Each of us has a different need for excitement or arousal, and we are motivated by activities that will help us achieve this level.
An empirical relationship between arousal and performance, the law dictates that performance increases with physiological or mental arousal, but only up to a point
Opponent-process theory of motivation
Often used to explain addictive behaviors. states that people are usually at normal, or baseline, state. We might perform an act that moves us from the baseline state, such as smoking a cigarette.
Stimuli that we are drawn to due to learning. We learn to associate some stimuli with rewards and others with punishment, and we are motivated to seek the rewards.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Psychologist Abraham Maslow pointed out that not all needs are created equal. Predicts which needs we will be motivated to satisfy first.
Represents growth of an individual toward fulfillment of the highest needs; those for meaning in life, in particular
Part of the body, involved in hunger motivation. Stimulating this area causes an animal to feel hunger and to eat.
When stimulated, makes you feel full. Whenever you eat a big meal and don't even want to think about eating another bite, it is doing it's job
States that everyone's body has a genetically determined range of weight and temperature that their body will try to maintain to stay at optimal health
One with this disease will eat large amounts of food in a short period of time (binging) and then get rid of the food(purging) by vomiting, exercising excessively, or using laxatives.
Those with this disease starve themselves to below 85 percent of their normal body weight and refuse to eat due to their obsession with weight.
People who are diagnosed with this disease are severely overweight, often by over 100 pounds, and the excess weight threatens their health.
Attempts to explain the motivations behind more complex behaviors. examines our desires to master complex tasks and knowledge and to reach personal goals
Rewards that we get for accomplishments from outside ourselves (grades, Salary)
Rewards that we get internally, such as enjoyment or satisfaction
Proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death.
Occurs when you must choose between two desirable outcomes
Occurs when you must choose between two unattractive outcomes
Exists when one event or goal has both attractive and unattractive features.
James-Lange theory of emotion
One of the earliest theories about emotion, suggests that we feel emotion because of biological changes caused by stress.
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
Walter cannon and philip bard demonstrated that similar physiological changes correspond with drastically different emotional states.
Two-factor theory (Schachter-Singer Theory)
Explains emotional experiences in a more complete way than either the james-lange or cannon-bard theories do.
General adaptation syndrome
Hans seyles's G.A.S describes the general response animals (including humans) have to a stressful event. Our response pattern to many different physical and emotional stresses is very consisted. process progresses through alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion phases.
(sensory memory) American cognitive psychologist who documented the existence of iconic memory (one of the sensory memory subtypes). Through several experiments, he showed support for his hypothesis that human beings store a perfect image of the visual world for a brief moment, before it is discarded from memory. He is extremely devoted to helping the deaf population with speech recognition. he has contributed very much to the fields of visual information processing and theory and empirical research.
(7+/-2) made famous the phrase: "the magical number 7, plus or minus 2" when describing human memory. He found that we can usually only memorize 7 items in a sequence at a time, give or take two. This has to do with short-term memory.
(primacy/recency effect) was the first person to study memory scientifically and systematically and used nonsense syllables and recorded how many times he had to study a list to remember it well. He also came up with the forgetting curve and studied overlearning in-depth.
(navist theory- language) Psychologist that specialized in language development; disagreed with Skinner about language acquisition, stated there is an infinite number of sentences in a language, humans have an inborn native ability to develop language
(eyewitness/faulty memory) her research on memory construction and the misinformation effect created doubts about the accuracy of eye-witness testimony
(linguistic relativity)A linguist/psychologist who noticed that the more words that you have for a certain type of thing, the more subtle the distinctions you recognize in it.
(Chimp study/insight) contributed to the creation of Gestalt psychology
(instincts/natural selection) a naturalist and scientist who developed theories about evolution and natural selection and is credited with being the father of evolutionary theory
(Hierarchy) created a hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization.
William James/Carl Lange
(theory of emotion) created a theory refers to a hypothesis on the origin and nature of emotions and is one of the earliest theories of emotion within modern psychology
Walter Cannon/Philip Bard
(theory of emotion) also known as the Thalamic theory of emotion, their theory states that we feel emotions and experience physiological reactions such as sweating, trembling and muscle tension simultaneously
(theory of emotion) best known for his development of the two factor theory of emotion. In his theory he states that emotions have two ingredients: physiological arousal and a cognitive label.
Thomas Holmes/Richard Rahe
(SRRS) Designed one of the first instruments to measure stress: Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) - measures stress using life-change units
(General Adaption Syndrome) The father of "modern stress theory." Defined eustress and distress. Stated that stress is a mutual action of forces in the body.
Recommended textbook explanations
Katherine Minter, Mary Spilis, William Elmhorst
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Richard A. Kasschau
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