Ch. 8 APEs
Terms in this set (59)
Tunnels within mountain where people go in.
Process of looking for metals and precious stones in river sediments
Miners remove entire top of a mountain with explosives
Open pit mining
Create large pit or hole in ground to mine
Unwanted waste material created during mining.
Minerals close to the surface, remove soil and rock to expose them, then return unwanted waste material.
Elements with properties that conduct electricity and heat
Average Concentration of an element in the crust
Economically valuable concentrated accumulations of minerals.
Loss of some or all of the ability of soils to support plant growth.
Measure of proportion of soil bases to soil acids
Cation Exchange Capacity
Ability of a soil to absorb and release cations. Determined by clay. Higher is better, but higher decreases porosity, therefore, there's a tradeoff.
Texture of soil
Determined by percentage of sand, silt, and clay
Least weathered. Most similar to parent material
Mineral material, little organic matter
Leaches organic acids from above layers to B where they accumulate
Topsoil. Organic material and minerals
Top layer. Organic horizon and detritus.
Rock material underlying a soil
Mix of geologic and organic components
Accumulation or depositing of eroded material
Physical removal of rock fragments from a landscape or ecosystem
Acid rain. Sulfur Dioxide reacts with water vapor to form sulfuric acid in rain.
Breakdown of rocks and minerals by chemical reactions and dissolving of a rocks chemical elements. Alters newly exposed/primary minerals to make secondary minerals.
Mechanical breakdown of rocks and minerals. Water, wind, or temp. Plants or burrowing animals can contribute. Exposing more surface area and makes more vulnerable to more erosion.
Other rick types subjected to high temps and pressure causing physical and chemical changes. Pressure creates distorted bands called foliation.
Form by sediments like muds, sands, and gravels compressed by overlying sediments. Can be uniform or different. Contains the most fossils.
Cracks caused by stress after cooling
Extrusive Igneous Rock
Magma cools on surface, cools rapidly, minerals don't separate
Cools inside Earth underground. Many colors, cools slowly, minerals separate.
Forms directly from magma. Classified by composition and mode of formation
Solid, Crystalline, Specific chemical structure, certain formations, uniform
Constant formation and destruction of rock.
Measure of ground movement in an earthquake. Logarithmic scale.
Exact point on Earth's surface directly above where rock ruptures
intensity frequency of earthquakes Areas with earthquakes and fault activity
Rocks of the lithosphere rupture unexpectedly along a fault. Common in fault zones.
Large expanses of rock where movement had occurred where plates meet.
Fracture in rock across which there is movement
Transform Fault Boundary
Plates move sideways past each other.
Convergent Plate Boundaries
Plates move towards one another. Continental + Continental= Mountains. Oceanic goes under land, forms mountains and volcanos. Oceanic goes under other oceanic.
Divergent Plate Boundaries
Magma pushes up and out, making new rocks and bringing copper, lead, and silver, however it is deep under ocean.
Vent in Earth's surface. Emits ash, gas, and molten lava. Can be caused by hotspots or convergent plates.
Process of one plate passing under another.
Oceanic plate meet continental. Oceanic pulled under continental. As other plates move apart, rising magma forms new seafloor crust.
Sum of the processes that build up and break up lithosphere
Theory of Plate Tectonics
Earth's lithosphere is divided into plates, most of which are in constant motion
Places where molten material from the mantle reaches lithosphere. Causes volcanoes. Also helps create convection cells
Solid upper mantle and crust. Overlaps with upper mantle. Made of plates with thin layer of soil.
Outer part of mantle. Made of semi-molten, ductile rock.
Molten rock in mantle
1st and innermost layer. Split into inner and outer. Inner is solid, outer liquid. Made of nickel and iron.
Molten rock that slowly circulates in convection cells. 2nd layer from center.
in resource management, the known quantity of a resource that can be economically recovered
the chemically distinct outermost layer of the lithosphere
an element with properties that allows it to conduct electricity and heat energy and perform other important functions
calcium magnesium potassium sodium neutralize soil acids promote plant growth
aluminum hydrogen detrimental to plant nutrition
characteristic layers of soil with specific compositions depending on climate vegetation and parent material