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Carbohydrate Review. Test 1

Mr. Patek Ex Phys
1. Adenosine Triphosphate
high energy molecule derived from food (carbs, fats,proteins) that serves as the immediate source of energy for most body functions.
2. Bioenergetics
refers to the process of breaking down an energy substrate and releasing energy. For example, within a glucose molecule, energy is stored within chemical bonds. During bioenergetics the bonds are broken and energy is released.
3. Blood sugar
Also known as glucose and dextrose.
4. Carbohydrate
Classification of a dietary nutrient containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; the major source of energy for the body. Hexose-the most common sugar.
5. calorie (little c calorie)
Refers to the amount of heat energy needed to raise 1 g of water from 1 degree celsius.
6. Complex Carbohydrate
Carbohydrates formed by three or more simple sugar molecules linked together; also known as polysaccharides.
7. Dextrose
Similar to glucose and blood sugar.
8. Disaccharides
Simple carbohydrates formed by two monosaccharide units linked together, one of which is glucose. Include sucrose, lactose, and maltose.
9. Epinephrine
Hormone released during the onset of exercise that activate glycogen phosphorolase which in turn activates glycogenolysis.
Exercise Physiology
The study of how the body structure and function are altered by exposure to acute and chronic bouts of exercise.
11. Fiber
Gives plants structure. Cannot be digested by the body. Therefore, a diet high in fiber reduces risk of colorectal cancer and prevents obesity. Lowers blood cholesterol. Controls blood glucose levels.
12. Fructose
Monosaccharide that comes from fruit and honey.
13. Galactose
Monosaccharide that comes from milk.
14. Glucagon
A peptide hormone secreted by the pancreas that raises blood glucose levels.
15. Gluconeogenesis
The generation of new glucose.
16. Glucose
Monosaccharide also known as blood sugar and dextrose. C6H12O6
17. Glycogen
Storage form of carbohydrates in animals. Stored in the livers and muscles.
18. Glycogen phosphorylase
Enzyme that converts muscle glycogen into glucose (glycogenolysis) which in turn makes atp which yields a muscle contraction. Also converts liver glycogen into glucose (glycogenolysis) which in turn is put back into the blood when glucose levels are low.
19. Glycogen synthase
enzyme involved into converting glucose to glycogen
20. Glycogenesis
Conversion of glucose to glycogen
21. Glycogenolysis
breakdown of glycogen into glucose
22. Hexose
most common sugar
23. High Fructose Corn Syrup
comprises any of a group of corn syrups that has undergone enzymatic processing to convert some of its glucose into fructose to produce a desired sweetness.
24. Ketosis
buildup of ketones. Happens when fat is not fully broken down.
25. Kilocalorie
1000 calories
26. Metabolism
how our bodies handle energy.
27. Monosaccharides
Any of a class of carbohydrates that cannot be broken down to simpler sugars by hydrolysis and that constitute the building blocks of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides consist of at least three carbon atoms, one of which is attached to an oxygen atom to form an aldehyde group (CHO) or a ketone, and the others of which are each attached to a hydroxyl group (OH). Monosaccharides can occur as chains or rings. Fructose, glucose, and ribose are monosaccharides.
28. Norepinephrine
hormone released at the onset of exercise that activates glycogen phosphorolase
29. Oxaloacetate
Bi-product of carbohydrate breakdown used to break fat.
30. Phosphatase-
any of a group of enzymes that act as a catalyst in the hydrolysis of organic phosphates
31. Polysaccharides
Complex carb made up of monosaccharides. Starch and fiber in plants and glycogen in humans.
32. Simple Carbohydrate
Formed by simple or double sugar units with little nutritive value, divided into monosaccharides and disaccharides.
33. Starch
Storage form of carbohydrates in plants.
34. Substrates
substance acted upon such as by an enzyme
35. Sucrose
glucose and fructose. Also known as table sugar.
36. Table Sugar
37. Water Insoluble Fiber-
Gives bulk to stools. High fiber diets reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Example: whole wheat bread.
38. Water Soluble Fiber-
Slows down the rate of absorption of other carbohydrates. Prevents dramatic rises in blood glucose, helps control symptoms of diabetes. Also hinders absorption of cholesterol in small intestine. Example: Oats.