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Basic Electricity
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Terms in this set (51)
Air Core Inductor
an inductor that uses air as the only core material
Alternating Current (AC)
Current that periodically reverses direction as it flows
Ampere
The unit by which electrical current is measured. One ampere, or amp, is defined as the flow of 6.28 x10 to the 18th electrons past a given point in one second
Arcing
Current flow through air, as can occur across an open swithch
Atoms
Tiny units of matter that contain electrically charged particles
Capacitance
The ability to store electrical energy. It is found in EVERY electrical current.
Capacitor
A component used to control and/or increase the amount of capacitance in an electrical circuit. The plates in a capacitor are separated by an insulating material.
Circuit
A complete path for current, including a voltage source and resistance
Conductor
A material that offers very little resistance to electron flow. A change in the flow of current through a conductor causes a change in the electromagnetic field surrounding that conductor.
Current
The movement, or flow, of electrons in a circuit. Current is measured in units called amperes (rate of flow of electrons).
Direct current
Current that flows in only one direction
Electromagnetism
Magnetism that is created by current flowing through a conductor
Electron
A negatively charged subatomic particle
Friction
The rubbing of one material against another
Inductance
A physical property of all conductors that tends to oppose a change in current flow
Induction
The process that produces a voltage due to interaction of a conductor, a magnetic field, and relative motion between them. Induction only occurs when the magnetic field is either building up or collapsing.
Inductor
A component specifically designed to increase the amount of inductance in a circuit. Two parts of a typical inductor are: conductor & core
Insulator
A material that offers a great deal of resistance to electron flow
Ohm
The unit by which resistance is measured. One ohm is defined as the resistance that allows one amp of current to flow in a circuit when there is one volt pushing the current.
Ohm's Law
A statement of the relationship between current, voltage, and resistance in an electrical circuit: current equals voltage divided by resistance
Open Circuit
A circuit in which the resistance is so great that there is no current flow
Parallel circuit
A circuit containing two or more parallel paths through which current can flow
Power
The rate at which work is done. Power is calculated by multiplying current times voltage (P=IE). Power is measured in units called watts.
Proton
A positively charged subatomic particle
Resistance
An electrical property that opposes the flow of current through a circuit. Resistance is measured in units called ohms.
Resistor
A component that is put into a circuit to reduce current flow
Self-induction
A type of induction that occurs within a single conductor; it occurs when a change in the electromagnetic field around a conductor induces a voltage in that conductor
Series Circuit
A circuit that contains a single path for current to follow. The components in a series circuit are connected end to end
Short Circuit
A circuit in which the resistance drops to almost zero and current reaches its maximum value.
Step-down transformer
A transformer that decreases votage
Step-up transformer
a transformer that increases voltage
Transformer
A component used to change AC voltages to met specific requirements. The purpose of a transformer is to increase or decrease voltage.
Volt
The unit by which voltage is measured. One volt is defined as the voltage necessary to drive a current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm.
Voltage
The driving force that makes electrons flow. Voltage is measured in units called volts.
Voltage Drop
The amount of voltage across a resistor in a electrical circuit
Watt
The unit by which electric power is measured. The amount of power produced when one volt causes one ampere of current to flow
Watt-hour
The basic unit used to measure electrical energy. Watt-hours are determined by multiplying power by them. One watt-hour is the amount of energy used when one watt of power is delivered to an electrical device for one hour.
Stub
Short end of conduit bend
Tail
Longer part of 90 degree bend
I
current
E
Voltage
R
Resistance
Subatomic Particles
Proton (+) and Electron (-)
Matter exists in one of three forms
Liquid, Solid or Gas
3 Important Facts about electrical charges
1-Opposite electrical charges of equal value cancel each other out. 2-Opposite electrical charges attract each other. 3-Like electrical charges repel each other.
Two major sources of energy used to produce large amounts of electricity
Chemical action (battery) & magnetism (generator)-most practical
Series Circuit: four basic facts
1-the amount of current flowing through each component is the same
2-the sum of the individual source voltages equals the total applied voltage
3-the sum of the individual resistances in the circuit is equal to the total circuit resistance
4-the total applied voltage in the circuit is equal to the sum of the voltage drops across the resistors in the circuit
Parallel Circuit: three basic facts
1-the total circuit current is equal to the sum of each currents flowing through each leg
2-the total circuit resistance is less than the resistance in any single leg
3-the voltage drop across each leg of a parallel circuit is equal to the source voltage
Transformers
AC components the make good use of the induction process. A transformer steps up (increases) or steps down (decreases) voltagel
Primary conductor
to increases the magnetic field of the conductor (in)
Secondary conductor
to increase the exposure of the conductor to the magnetic field (out)
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