83 terms

Broadcast Vocab

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

CCD/CMOS
(CCD) charge coupled device Camera image chip that converts optical images to electronic signals
(CMOS) Accomplishes the same job as a CCD, but uses different technology
Lens
Projects an optical image of the scene onto the surface of the CCD
Body
Main box of the camera that holds CCD, electronics, and lens
Viewfinder
Small video monitor attached to camera that displays what camera is shooting
Pan
Move the camera horizontally on a pivot point
Truck
To move the camera right or left using a dolly
Dolly
To move the camera toward (or away from) the talent Also refers to the wheels on a tripod
Arc
To move the camera in a curve around talent or object Camera stays equal distance from object
Pedestal
(noun) a studio camera support that allows up and down movement of the camera (verb) to move the camera up or down using pedestal camera mount
Tilt
Up and down movement of camera on a pivot point (tilt up, tilt down)
Rule of thirds
Aid to composition; the placing of a key part of the picture or action on one of the intersections of a tic-tac-toe grid
Nose room
The space in front of a person looking or pointing toward the side of the screen
Headroom
The space between the top of the head and the upper edge of the picture or television screen
Lead room
The space in front of a moving object or person
Wide or long shot (LS)
A broad field of view (opposite of telephoto close-up) Object seen far away (also called establishing shot)
Medium shot (MS)
Object seen from medium distance (sometimes called waist shot)
Close up shot (CU)
Tightly framed camera shot where subject is viewed at close range For people, head and shoulders
Extreme close up shot (ECU)
Very tightly framed camera shot For people, forehead to tops of shoulders
Over-the-shoulder shot (O/S)
View of the front of the primary subject and the back of the head and shoulders of the camera-near person Common in interviews
Cross shot (XS)
Similar to over-the-shoulder shot except the camera-near person is completely out of the shot
Focus
Image looks sharp and clear when it is in focus ("Soft focus" is sometimes used for aging actors)
White balance
The adjustments of the color circuits in the camera to produce white regardless of the color temperature
Setting the iris
Adjustable lens-opening mechanism (also called diaphragm) "Setting the iris" adjusts amount of light passing through the lens by opening or closing the aperture
Tripod
A three-legged stand for supporting a camera
Hand Held
Holding the camera on the shoulder or in the hands Often results in an unstable picture due to body movements
Omnidirectional
Pickup pattern in which the microphone can pick up sounds equally well from all directions
Unidirectional
Pickup pattern in which the microphone can pick up sounds better from the front than from the sides or back
Lavaliere
A small microphone that can be clipped onto clothing
Hand (stick)
A microphone which is handled by the performer With the hand mic (stick mic) the performer can approach and talk at random to anyone in the audience
Shotgun/Boom
A highly directional mic for picking up sounds from a relatively great distance
Camera
The microphone built into a video camera This microphone generally uses a cardioid pattern
RCA
Connector used for audio and video connections for consumer equipment
XLR
A professional audio connector that uses three wires and delivers a balanced audio signal
Mini (/")
An unbalanced connector for audio signals Can be either stereo or mono
Phone (/")
An audio connector that can be designed to carry a balanced signal or an unbalanced signal An unbalanced phone plug will have just a tip and a sleeve (T/S) while a balanced connector will have a tip, ring and sleeve (T/R/S)
USB
A connector used to connect a microphone directly to a computer to take advantage of a computer's recording function
Mic/line Inputs
Inputs on an audio mixer that can be switched to allow either a microphone or an audio output from a source such as a VCR or other audio recorder
Mic/line faders
A sound-volume control that works by means of a button sliding horizontally along a specific scale Identical in functionto a pot (potentiometer)
VU Meter (Volume-Unit Meter)
Measures volume units, the relative loudness of amplified sound
Master Fader
Used to control the signal strength of the mixed output from an audio mixer
Line Out
The final mixed and quality-processed signal that is sent from an audio mixer
Triangle or three-point lighting
The triangular arrangement of key, back and fill lights to render subjects with depth and texture Also referred to as photographic principle
Key (Spot)
Principal or main source of illumination A fresnel spotlight is usually used as a key light
Back or Halo (Spot)
Illumination from behind the subject and opposite the camera Usually done with spotlights Creates depth by separating the subject from the background
Fill (Flood)
Diffused light, usually from a flood light, opposite the key light This light illuminates shadows and reduces falloff
Form, dimension and mood
Using lighting techniques to affect the mood and tone of a video production
Spot
A lighting fixture that gives off a sharp, well defined directional beam of light
Flood
A lighting fixture that produces diffused light which produces soft, indistinct shadows
Barn doors
Metal flaps in front of lighting instrument that help control the spread light
Base lighting
Even, non-directional light necessary for camera to operate optimally
Chroma key
Special key effect that uses a color (blue or green) for the key source background All color areas are replaced by another video source during the keying Frequently used in weather segments to show the meteorologist standing in front of charts and maps
Background
Lighting that is directed at and intended to illuminate the background of the set
Falloff
The speed that light areas turn to shadow areas Fast falloff is an abrupt change; slow falloff is a very gradual change
Preproduction meeting
A time to plan all of the activities and details of a production Before a news show, this meeting is used to make sure that all of the most important stories of the day are covered
Script
A written document that tells what the program is about, who says what, what is supposed to happen, and what and how the audience should see and hear the event
Rundown
Lists the items to be shown on camera and their main features Indicates which camera will be used, who will be on screen and how long each segment of the program will last
Studio preparation
Organizing the studio to prepare for a production All cameras, microphones, lights and other props are arranged for and organized to be used during the broadcast
Producer
In charge of an individual production Responsible for all personnel working on the production and for coordinating technical and non-technical production elements
Director
In charge of directing talent and technical operations Is ultimately responsible for transforming a script into effective video and audio messages
Technical director
Does the switching and usually acts as the technical crew chief
Floor director
In charge of all activities on the studio floor Coordinates talent, relays director's cues to talent, and supervises floor personnel
Camera operator
Operates the cameras; often does the lighting for simple shows When working primarily in field productions (ENG/EFP), they are sometimes called videographers and shooters
Audio Technician
In charge of all audio operations Works audio console during the show Also called an audio engineer
Video playback
Runs the videotape record and/or disk-based (computer) recording devices
Graphics
Types and/or recalls from the computer the names and other graphic material to be integrated with the video image
Talent
Persons who perform regularly in front of the camera
Teleprompter
A prompting device that projects the moving (usually computer-generated) copy over the lens so that the talent can read it without losing eye contact with the viewer
Still Store
An electronic device that can grab a single frame from any video source and store it in digital form It can retrieve the frame randomly in a fraction of a second
Preview Bus
A row of buttons on the switcher used to select the upcoming video (preset function) and route it to the preview monitor (preview function) independent of the line-out video
Program Bus
The bus on a switcher whose inputs are directly switched to the line-out
Key Bus
A row of buttons on the switcher, used to select the video source to be inserted into a background image (a chroma key)
Mix/Effects (M/E)
A row of buttons on the switcher that permit the mixing of video sources, as in a dissolve or super
Fader Bar
A lever which controls the speed of a mix (dissolves and fades) and the nature of a superimpose effect
Chroma key
Special key effect that uses a color (blue or green) for the key source background All color areas are replaced by another video source during the keying Frequently used in weather segments to show the meteorologist standing in front of charts and maps
Picture in Picture (PIP)
A technique that allows a small photo or video clip to be placed on the screen at the same time that a newsman/woman reads a story The picture is often placed above one of the shoulders of the talent Is sometimes called an over-the-shoulder shot
Virtual Studio
Computer-generated graphics which are keyed into a chroma-key area behind the talent, much like a weather map
Transitions
When the video changes from one scene to another Can be a cut, a mix (fade, dissolve, super) or a Wipe
Text
Graphic lettering superimposed over a video scene
Font
A style of type of one particular face The size of the font may be adjusted up or down
Title safe area
Inner two thirds of the video image where you are secure in the knowledge that all television sets will be capable of seeing the information Often designated with a visible frame on nonlinear edit systems
Computer-generated design
A graphic or special effect that is created digitally on a computer and then used in the video production
Still Images
A digital photo used in video editing This can be a digital image scanned from a photograph or a single frame of video that has been saved as a digital photo
Lower Third
Refers to a graphic placed on the bottom third of the TV screen which generally gives information about the individual on screen (name, title, etc) or provides specific information about the image that is on currently on the screen