Endocrinology Lecture 1
Terms in this set (36)
Cell-to-cell communication molecules
The length of activity.
Are released into the environment. usually specific to insect species.
Elicit physiological or behavioral response on other organisms of the same species
Berthod Experiment showed what ?
When he castrated the roosters, they were less aggressive, the wattles were smaller. Weaker crows and no interest in the hens. Later they noticed that testosterone could be crystalized, it was a steroid hormone.
Whats different about this is that , It has discrete cell types around it that produce various types of hormone. More of an endocrine type of tissue.
Organs with Endocrine Functions ?
Liver, Gastrointestinal tract Kidneys, Adipose tissue
Internal environment has to be maintained constant within narrow limits, no matter what conditions prevail in the external environment, also feedback recognition. In order to maintain homeostasis, there has to be bioregulation at the endocrine, nervous system and immune system and their messengers.
Sends feedback to central endocrine glands to let them know when there are ion changes. i.e calcium etc.
Cycles in which the product of one reaction causes another to start or stop.
Referring to a secreted molecule that acts on a neighboring cell.
From neuron to the blood.
A nerve secretes its chemical messenger which is taken into a blood vessel and carried to many cells
Is a hormone that is released from a tissue that has a duct. Hormone-like agents called growth factors and cytokines that regulate immune cell functions, cell division, differentiation, and even programmed cell death (apoptosis). These agents act locally in a paracrine or autocrine manner, but may also enter the circulation and affect the functions of distant cells, and hence behave as hormones.
Metabolized into the liver and covered into T3, which is the more active form.
The longer lasting hormone
Peptide or Protein Hormone
Very short acting, like in milliseconds
• Peptide or protein hormones
• Steroid hormones
• Amino acid-derived or amine hormones.
Catecholamine derived from single AA -( Epi, Norepi, Dopamine, Triiodothyronine.) Thyroxine
made from tyrosine amino acids, short half-life, seconds to mins.
Testosterone, Estradiol, Progesterone, Cortisol, Aldosterone, Vit D
Peptide Hormones ( < 20 amino acids)
Oxytocin (9Amino Acids), Vasopressin (9Amino Acids), Angiotension (9Amino Acids), Melanocyte-Stimulating hormone, Somatostatin
All are derived from cholesterol.
Lipids in which the carbon skeleton contains four fused rings
Protein Hormones (> 20 Amino Acids
Insulin, Glucagon, aDCH, TSH, Prolactin, Growth Hormone, FSH, LH
Only hormone that has a long half-life.
Lipid-soluble hormone derived from cholesterol.
Convert cholesterol into Testosterone in the testes.
Located outside the seminiferous tubules.
LH (Luteinizing Hormone)
Stimulates Leydig cells in the testes.
Hormone released by the pituitary gland which helps cause ovulation. Comes from
Water soluble hormone.
proteins that switch on genes by binding to DNA and helping the RNA polymerase to bind
What structure allows hormone-receptor complexes to latch onto the DNA?
More specific to steroid binding hormones.
Hormone binding allows the receptor to regulate the expression of specific genes
A steroid hormone released by the corpus luteum that stimulates the uterus to prepare for pregnancy.
Pituitary hormones that act on other endocrine glands; tropins.
stimulates other glands to secrete hormones
Heat shock proteins
Include chaperones and ubiquitin. Induced by stress such as heat.
A protein that helps prevent the denaturation of other proteins in high temperature environments.
Hormone Response Element
Receptors bound to steroid hormones, in turn, bind to specific nucleotide sequences in DNA
An enzyme that releases inositol phospholipids from the membrane for signaling
activates protein kinase A
BPA in plastic, disrupts the endocrine system and mimics...