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Alienation or social instability caused by erosion of standards and values caused living in the modern world.


Going along with one's peers, individuals of a person's own status, who have no special right to direct that person's behavior.


The totality of learned, socially transmitted behavior.


Behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.


Sociological investigation that concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations.


Surroundings, especially of a social or cultural nature.


Sociological investigation that stresses study of small groups and often uses laboratory experimental studies.


Established standards of behavior maintained by a society.


The ability to exercise one's will over others.


According to George Herbert Mead, the sum total of people's conscious perceptions of their own identity as distinct from others.

Self-fulfilling prophecy

The tendency of people to respond to and act on the basis of stereotypes, leading to validation of false definitions.

Social inequality

A condition in which members of a society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power.

Social institutions

Organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs.


The process whereby people learn the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate for individuals as members of a particular culture.

Social role

A set of expectations of people who occupy a given social position or status.


A fairly large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside it, and participate in a common culture.

Sociological imagination

The set of mind that allows individuals to see the relationship between events in their personal lives, events in their society and global and historical events.


The systematic study of social behavior and human groups.


In sociology, a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior.


Collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable, and proper-or bad, undesirable, and improper-in a culture.


A measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions.

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