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63 terms

Chapter 4 THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

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Muscle fibers
are the long, slender cells that make up muscles. Each muscle consists of group fibers that are held togehter by connective tissue and enclosed in fibrous sheath.
Fascia
sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and seperates muscles or groups of muscles
Myofascial
means pertaining to musscle tissue and fascia
Tendon
a narrow band of nonelastic, dense fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone.
Skeletal Muscle
attached to the bones of the skelton snd make body motions possible
Smooth Muscles
located in the walls of internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels, and ducts leading form glands
Myocardial Muscles
also known as myocardium or cardiac muscles, form the muscular walls of the heart
Neuromuscular Muscle
means pertaining to the relationships between nerve and muscle
Contraction
tightnening of a muscle. As the muscle contracts, it become shorter and thicker, causing the belly (center) of the muscle to enlarge
Relaxation
occurs when a muscle returns to its original form. As the muscle relaxes it becomes longer, and thinner, and the belly is no longer enlarged.
Abduction
the movement of a limb away from the midline of the body
A contrast in adduction
is the movement of a limb toward the midline of the body
flexion
decreasing the angle between two bones by bending a limb at a joint
Elevation
the act of raising or lifting a body part, such as rising te ribs when breathing in levator is a muscle that raises a body part.
Depression
the act of lowering a body part, such as lowering the ribs when breathing out. A depressor, is a muscle that lowers a body part.
Rotation
circular movement around an axis such as the shoulder joint. An axis is an imaginary line that runs lenghtwise through the center of the body
Circumduction
circular movement of a limb at the far end. Ex swinging motion of the far end of the arm.
supination
act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot, is turned forward or upward.
Pronation
act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm or sole of the foot is turned downward or backward.
origin
less movable attachment, the place where the muscle begins. the origin is located nearest the midline of the body or on a less movable part of the skelton.
Other Muscles indicate their location by including the term lateralis and medials in their names,
Lateralis means toward the side. Medials means toward the midline.Ex VAtus laterials and the vastus medials. These muscle flex and extend at the leg at knee.
Some muscles indicate their location by including external and internal in their names.
External or superfiscial mean near the surface and internal means deeper location. The external oblique and internal oblique flex and rotate the spinal column and compress the abdomen.
oblique
slanted or at an angle. Ex the external oblique and internal oblique muscles have a slanted alignment
Rectus
straight alignment with the vertical axis of the body. Ex the rectus abdominus muscle has a straight alignment.
Sphincter
a ring like muscle that tightly constricts of the oppening of a passageway. A sphincter is named fpr the passage involved. Ex anal sphincter closes the anus
Transverse
in a crosswire direction. An example is the transverse abdomins muscle, which has a crosswise alignment.
Biceps Branchii
also known as the biceps is formed from two divisions.
Triceps Branchii
also known as the triceps is formed form three divisions.
Rheumatologist
a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders such as osteoporosis, fibromyalgia, and tendonitis that are characterized by inflammation in the joints and connective tissue
Atrophy
weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures
Myocele
hernation(protusion) of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it.
Hernia
protusion of a part or structure through the tissues normally contaning it.
Myorrhexis
ruptur or tearing of a muscle
Dystonia
a condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movements
Myotonia
a neuromuscular disorder characterized by tge slow relaxation of the muscles after a voluntary contraction.
Spasmodic Tortucollis
also known as wryneck, is a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side. Spasmodic means relating to spasm and torticollis means a contraction, or shortening of the muscles of a neck.
Hyperkinesia
also known as hyperactivity, is abnormally increased muscles function or activity.
Myoparesis
a weakness or slight muscular paralysis
Hemiplegia
total parlysis affecting one side of the body
Parapelgia
paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body. An individual affected with parapelgia is known as paraplegic.
Fasciotomy
surgical incision through the fascia to releive tension or pressure
Fascioplasty
surgical repair of fascia
Tenodesis
surgical suturing of the end of the tendon bone.
Tenectomy
also known as tenoectomy is the surgical resection of a protion of a tendon or tendon sheath.
Tenotomy
also known as a tendomoty is the surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity caused by abnormal shortening of a muscle such as strabisum.
adduction
moves toward the midline. During adduction the arm moves inward toward the side of the body.
dorsiflexion
the movement that bends the foot upward at the ankle. Pointing the toes and foot upward decreases the angle between the top of the foot and the front of the leg.
myositis
muscular discomfort or pain
bi
twice double two
cele
hernia, tumor, swelling
dys
bad, difficult, pain
fasci/o
face, form
fibr/o
fiber
ia
abnormal condition, disease, plural of ium
ic
pertaining to
kines/o, kinesi/o
movement
my/o
muscle
plegia
paralysis, stroke
rrhexis
rupture
tax/o
coordination, order
ten/o,tend/o, tendin/o
tendon strecth out , extend , strain
ton/o
tension, tone, structure
tri
three