Upgrade to remove ads
American History 2 - NCFE Review
Vocabulary for chapters of American History 2
Terms in this set (182)
A policy that gives special consideration to women and minorities in the fields of education and employment, in order to make up for past discrimination
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used guerilla warfare to fight anti-communist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
idea that if Vietnam fell to communism, its close neighbors would follow.
Nothern Vietnam guerrilla fighters
John F. Kennedy
35th President of the United States 35th President of the United States; only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize; events during his administration include the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and early events of the Vietnam War; assassinated in Dallas, TX in 1963
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba
Bay of Pigs Invasion
(1961) the failed attempt of Cuban exiles backed by the U.S. to overthrow the Cuban socialist government of Fidel Castro
Cuban missile crisis
1962 crisis that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union over a Soviet attempt to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba
Term used to describe Kennedy's proposals to improve the economy, education, healthcare and civil rights.
term used to describe the competition between the Soviet Union and the United States to develop technology to successfully
Lyndon B. Johnson
Became president after Kennedy's assassination and reelected in 1964; Democrat; signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law, promoted his "Great Society" plan, part of which included the "war on poverty", Medicare and Medicaid established; Vietnam: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, Tet Offensive
Civil Rights Act
Became law in 1964, outlawed discrimination in voting, education, and public accommodations.
War on Poverty
President Lyndon B. Johnson's program in the 1960's to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly
Provided basic hospital insurance for Americans in the Social Security system who were age 65 and older.
Provided basic medical services to poor and disabled Americans who were not part of the Social Security system.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
A civil rights activist who refused to get off the white section of a bus in Montgomery, Alabama. The incident sparked the Montgomery bus boycott.
Montgomery bus boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
nonviolent protests in which a person sits and refuses to leave
A ride made by civil rights workers to desegregate public facilities, such as bus terminals or lunch counters.
March on Washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Outlawed discrimination in public places and employment based on race, religion, or national origin
GI Bill of Rights
a law that provided financial and education benefits for World War II veterans
A period of 20 years, following World War II, during which there was an unusual number of births.
Interstate Highway Act
1956 Eisenhower 20 year plan to build 41,000 mi of highway, largest public works project in history
1950s rock-and-roll star; symbol of sex & youth rebellion; his music fused black R & B with white country music
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union's policy of isolation during the Cold War. The barrier isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world.
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered NATO with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nations within its own sphere of influence.
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
Line that divided Korea - Soviet Union occupied the north and United States occupied the south, during the Cold War.
a competition between nations to have the most powerful armaments
the willingness to go to the brink of war to force an opponent to back down
Central Intelligence Agency
An agency created after WWII to coordinate American intelligence activities abroad and to collect, analyze, and evaluate intelligence. Eisenhower approve secret operations to protect American interests.
The fear that communists both outside and inside America were working to destroy American life
House Committee on Un-American Activities
An investigative committee of the House of Representatives. It was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having Communist ties.
Joseph R. McCarthy
Led a crusade to investigate officials he claimed were Communists.
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee. Made accusations without evidence.
(nicknamed "Ike") became a very popular 2 term Republican American president. He was elected because he was a WWII war hero. Ike planned the successful Operation Torch attack and was later appointed to be "Supreme Allied Commander" in Europe (he was placed in charge of all generals for all nations allied with the US). His next big plan was Operation Overlord.
Allied invasion of France on June 6, 1944
Harry S. Truman
(1945-1949) and (1949-1953), Succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon his death. Led the country through the last few months of World War II, and made the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery. Created the CIA
American strategy in World War II which called for capturing Japanese-held islands in the Pacific and moving on to others to bring the American military closer and closer to Japan itself.
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
1935 laws defining the status of Jews and withdrawing citizenship from persons of non-German blood.
Deliberate extermination of a racial or cultural group
Place where members of specifically designated groups were confined.
(FDR) 1945, want quick end to war "The Big Three" FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War, Stalin broke promise on free elections and representative govt.
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
A series of court proceedings held in Nuremberg, Germany, after World War II, in which Nazi leaders were tried for aggression, violations of the rules of war, and crimes against humanity.
A government that controls the political, economic, social, and cultural lives of its citizens.
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition
(1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.
(1) elected Chancellor of Germany in January 1933, the fascist Nazi leader who oversaw German economic recovery by mobilizing industry for military purposes; (2) he aggressively sought global hegemony & oversaw one of the century's most notorious genocide attempts
Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II.
Alliance of Britain and France and later Soviet Union and United States during WWII
(1874-1965) British prime minister; he opposed the policy of appeasement and led Great Britain through World War II.
1941 law that authorized the president to aid any nation whose defense he believed was vital to American security
This general was premier of Japan during World War II while this man was dictator of the country. He gave his approval for the attack on Pearl Harbor and played a major role in Japan's military decisions until he resigned in 1944
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
1882-1945. 32nd President. Renounced right of U.S. to intervene in Latin America. Felt America should be "Arsenal of Peace" at onset of WWII. Was "anti-imperialist" and sought to end European colonialism. Gave "Infamy Speech" and declared war on Japan in 1941.
FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
Tennessee Valley Authority
(FDR) 1933, , A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
Civilian Conservation Corps
a public work relief program for unemployed men so they have jobs. the men worked on jobs related to conservation and development of natural resources
National Recovery Administration
Government agency that was part of the New Deal and dealt with the industrial sector of the economy. It allowed industries to create fair competition which were intended to reduce destructive competition and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours.
Works Progress Administration
New Deal agency that helped create jobs for those that needed them. It created around 9 million jobs working on bridges, roads, and buildings.
Social Security Act
(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
Negotiations between representatives of labor unions and management to determine pay and acceptable working conditions.
31st President of the United States, Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.
Buying stocks with the anticipation that the price will go up and the stock can be sold for money quickly.
October 29, 1929; date of the worst stock-market crash in American history and beginning of the Great Depression.
A severe, world wide economic crisis which lasted from the end of 1929 to the outbreak of World War II.
Raised prices on foreign imports to such a level that they could not compete in the American market,
Depression shantytowns, named after the president whom many blamed for their financial distress
A poor farmer who did not own land and had to live on and work the land of others, either for wages or a share of the crop they produced
A nickname for the Great Plains regions hit by drought and dust storms in the early 1930s
1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
Process of making large quantities of an identical product quickly and cheaply
A long line of workers and equipment where one worker or group of workers does one job.
a flood of new, affordable goods became available to the public
A consumers buys products by promising to pay small, regular amounts over a period of time
Buying on margin
buying stock by paying only a portion of the full cost up-front with promises to pay the rest later
30th U.S. President. 1923-1929. Republican, Became president when Harding died. Tried to clean up scandals. Business prospered and people's wealth increased
(1928)-Document, signed by fifteen countries, that "condemned and renounced war as an instrument of national policy."
1925 court case in which William Jennings Bryan and Clarence Darrow debated issues on teaching evolution in school systems
An arrangement placing a limit on the number of immigrants from each country
Ku Klux Klan
Organization that promotes hatred and discrimination against specific ethnic and religious groups.
A ban on the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages
1919- Progressive amendment that made the production and sale of alcohol illegal in an attempt to improve morality and family life.
Smugglers of illegal alcohol during the Prohibition era
Young women in the 1920s who challenged social traditions with their dress and behavior
A musical style created mainly by African Americans in the early twentieth century that blended elements drawn from African musics with the popular and art traditions of the West.
A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
A policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
(1863-1914) Heir apparent to the Austro-Hungarian throne whose assassination in Sarajevo set in motion the events that started World War I.
German submarines used in World War I
Message proposing an alliance between Germany and Mexico
Selective Service Act
Law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft
1917 This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
Movement of African Americans from the South to the North for jobs.
(1918) President Woodrow Wilson's plan for organizing post World War I Europe and for avoiding future wars.
League of Nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
Payment for damages after a war
A continuous rise in the price of goods and services
1920: a series a government attacks on suspected radicals in the United States led by the U.S. attorney general A. Mitchell Palmer.
Saco and Vanzetti
Two Italian men accused of murdering a paymaster and his guard at a shoe factory in South Braintree Mass. They were found guilty and executed. No one knows if they really did it or not. They were anarchists and many said it was their beliefs that were on trial.
Warren G. Harding
U. S. president who called for a return to normalcy following WWI, his administration was involved in many scandals (including the Tea Pot Dome Scandal).
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
William Randolph Hearst
A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate "yellow journalism."
Newspapers that used sensational headlines and exaggerated stories in order to promote readership and increased dislike for Spanish government. They were called the Yellow Press because they featured a cartoon called the yellow kid.
Volunteer regiment of US Cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
Treaty of Paris 1898
The treaty that concluded the Spanish American War, Commissioners from the U.S. were sent to Paris on October 1, 1898 to produce a treaty that would bring an end to the war with Spain after six months of hostility. From the treaty America got Guam, Puerto Rico and they paid 20 million dollars for the Philippines. Cuba was freed from Spain.
William Howard Taft
(1857-1930) Twenty-seventh president of the United States; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff. He lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.
Spheres of Influence
An area of one country under the control of another. In China, these areas guaranteed specific trading privileges to each imperialist nation within its respective sphere.
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Great White Fleet
16 American battleships, painted white, sent around the world to display American naval power.
Allowed the United States to intervene in Cuba and gave the United States control of the naval base at Guantanamo Bay.
"big stick" diplomacy
The policy held by Teddy Roosevelt in foreign affairs. The "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them.
a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)
Addition to the Monroe Doctrine asserting America's right to intervene in Latin American affairs
Taft and Knox cam up with it to further foreign policy in the U.S. in 1909-1913 under the Roosevelt Corollary. It was meant to avoid military intervention by giving foreign countries monetary aid.
Woodrow Wilson's foreign policy, where he said that the US would never try to add another foot of territory by conquest and would focus on "human rights, national integrity, and opportunity".
Community center organized at the turn of the 20th century to provide social services to the urban poor.
A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.
campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages
Right to vote
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Booker T. Washington
Famous African American leader of the 19th century, former slave that advocated people to "pull themselves up from their own bootstraps" by building economic resources and establishing reputations as hardworking and honest citizens and advocating the acceptance of segregation-for-now, and instead focus on vocational and farming skills to help improve their situation.
W.E.B. Du Bois
1900-1920s: a black civil rights' leader who argued that blacks needed to get education for social equality, founded the NAACP. He believed Washington was too accommodating to whites and encouraged blacks to demand full and immediate equality.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Founded by W.E.B. Du Bois, it emerged out of the Niagara Movement in 1909. It worked for equal rights.
1858-1919. 26th President. Increased size of Navy, "Great White Fleet". Added Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine. "Big Stick" policy. Received Nobel Peace Prize for mediation of end of Russo-Japanese war. Later arbitrated split of Morocco between Germany and France.
Meat Inspection Act
1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
A U.S. political party that was organized by Republican progressives in 1911 and supported the presidential candidacy of Theodore Roosevelt in 1912. Also called Bull Moose Party
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Federal Trade Commission
A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy.
Clayton Antitrust Act
New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions
Jim Crow laws
Segregation laws enacted in the South after Reconstruction.
Reading and writing test formerly using in some southern states to prevent African Americans from voting.
Government departments and their nonelected employees.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
Law that created a civil service system for the federal government in an attempt to hire employees on a merit system rather than on a spoils system.
network of farmers' organizations that worked for political and economic reforms in the late 1800s.
People's party; political party formed in 1891 to advocate a larger money supply and other economic reform.
Williams Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate in 1896 that supported Populist policies such as "free silver." Famous for "cross of gold" speech.
The Republican candidate in 1896 that won the election.
Public lands where Native Americans were forced to live by the federal government.
Sand Creek Massacre
1864 incident in which Colorado militia killed a camp of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians.
Chief that led Sioux at Little Big Horn against General Custer.
Battle of Little Big Horn
1876 battle in which the Sioux defeated US Army troops.
Nez Peres's leader that led a group of refugees on a trek of more than 1,300 miles to Canada. Famous for saying "I will fight no more forever."
1890 confrontation between US cavalry and Sioux that marked the end of Indian resistance.
To be absorbed into the main culture of a society.
Dawes General Allotment Act
1887 law that divided reservation land into private family plots.
Rail link between the eastern and western United States.
Land designated by the federal government for building schools, roads or railroads.
Vast area of grassland on which livestock roamed and grazed.
1862 law that gave 160 acres of land to citizens willing to live on and cultivate it for 5 years.
Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe beginning in the 1870s.
Island in New York Harbor that served as an immigration station for millions of immigrants arriving to the United States.
Belief that native-born white Americans are superior to newcomers.
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 law that prohibited the immigration of Chinese laborers.
Expansion of cities and/or an increase in the number of people living in them.
term coined by Mark Twain to describe the post-Reconstruction era which was characterized by a façade of prosperity.
Similar cultural patterns in a society as a result of the spread of transportation, communication, and advertising.
Process for purifying iron, resulting in strong, but lightweight steel.
A number of people share the ownership of a business.
Complete control of a product or service.
John D. Rockefeller
System of consolidating many firms in the same business.
Process of gaining control of many different businesses that make up all phases of a products development.
Nickname for shrewd capitalists that swindled the poor.
Captains of Industry
Nickname for business leaders that people believed benefitted the nation positively.
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
Created by the United States Senate in 1887 to oversee railroad operations.
Sherman Antitrust Act
Passed by Senate in 1890, outlawed any trust that operated 'in restraint of trade or commerce among the several states."
American Federation of Labor
Formed in 1886 by Samuel Gompers, a craft union that was made up of skilled workers.
In 1893, railroad strike caused by cut in wages without decrease in cost of living. Employers used the courts to limit the influence of unions.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
American History 2 - NCFE Review
American History 2 NCFE
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
American History 2 - NCFE Review
NM EOC Year in Review Loftfield
APUSH Review 1945-present
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Age of Exploration
unit 4 study guide
Civics- Chapter 3