Psychology

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Terms in this set (...)

Structuralism
An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind.
Functionalism
A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.
Behaviorism
The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
Humanistic Psychology
Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individuals potential for personal growth.
Sigmund Freud
The controversial ideas of this framed personality theorist and therapist have influenced humanity self-understanding.
Wilhelm Wundt
Wundt established the first psychology laboratory at the university of Leipzig, Germany.
Psychology
The science of behavior and mental processes.
Nature-Nurture issue
The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
Natural Selection
The principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Charles Darwin
Darwin argued that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies.
Evolutionary
How the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes.
Psychodynamic
How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts.
Behavioral
How we learn observable responses.
Social-cultural
How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.
Counseling Psychology
A branch of psychology that assits people with problems in living (school,work,or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.
Case study
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
Naturalistic Observation
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
Neuron
a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve cell.
Sensory Neurons
Neurons that carry incoming information from sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
Nervous system
the network of nerve cells and fibers that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body.
Central Nervous System
the complex of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body. In vertebrates it comprises the brain and spinal cord.
Manifest Content
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden content).
Latent content
according to freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (from manifest content).
Functionalism
was a philosophy opposing the prevailing structuralism of psychology of the late 19th century. Edward Titchener, the main structuralist, gave psychology its first definition as a science of the study of mental experience, of consciousness, to be studied by trained introspection.
Gestalt Psychology
the study of perception and behavior from the standpoint of an individual's response to configurational wholes with stress on the uniformity of psychological and physiological events and rejection of analysis into discrete events of stimulus, percept, and response.
What are the four main goals of psychology?
Description, Explanation, Prediction, and Control

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