Terms in this set (42)
John Watson said he could bring up anyone at random and train them to become any type of specialist. What is this an example of?
Empiricism (nurture) which says that all knowledge is gained through experience.
nature...infants are born with some innate knowledge or abililities
continuity is to ____ as; discontinuity is to____
quantitative change; qualitative change
change in amount or degree
step-like change, change in type
Is an older adult moving from his home to an assisted living center qualitative or quantitative?
Is an infant slowly adding words to her vocab qualitative or quantitative?
What is the idea that there may be specific periods in development when an organism is especially sensitive to the presence/absence of some particular kind of experience called?
Hess (1972) experimented with baby ducks and found that the 1st 15 hrs or so after hatching they must develop a following response; what is this time period referred to as?
What is the span of months or years during which a child may be particularly responsive to specific forms of experience or particularly influenced by their absence called?
the idea that experiences occurring at the expected times for an individual's culture/cohort will pose fewer difficulties for the individual than will off-time experiences (Neugarten) follows what?
what are some weaknesses of the naturalistic observation method?
observier bias, limited in extent to which the results can be generalized, time consuming
what are some strengths of naturalistic observation method?
easy to see people in a very natural experiences. provides information in everyday contexts
what are some weaknesses of the case study method?
we wouldn't know if our findings applied to others
what are some strengths of the case study method?
extremely useful in making decisions about individuals, frequently the basis of important hypotheses about unusual developmental events (head injuries, strokes, mental retardation)
what are some strengths of the survey method?
able to quickly gather info, and track changes over time
what are some weaknesses of the survey method?
the participants must have a good sample of population, and people often are influenced by social desirability with their answers
what are some strengths of the experimental method?
essential for understanding many aspects of development, controlled environment
what are some weaknesses of the experimental method?
limited with ethical manipulation, researchers cannot assign participants randomly to age groups.
what are some strengths of quasi-experimental method?
ethical so it is easier to manipulate if they select comparison groups that are matched on those variables the researchers think might matter.
what are some weaknesses of quasi-experimental method?
more ambiguous results, groups that differ in one way are likely to differ in other ways as well.
what are some strengths of longitudinal method?
sequences of change, and individual consistency
what are some weaknesses of longitudinal method?
practice effects, time consuming, some cohort effects
What is the cohort effect?
findings that are the result of historical factors to which one age group in a cross-sectional study has been exposed
What was Freud's theory?
Psychoanalytic, conscious and unconscious processes, emphasis on early development, libido, 5 psychosexual stages, defense mechanisms
Explain Freud's Id:
Explain Freud's Ego:
eplain Freud's superego:
explain freuds defense mechanism
ego's protective method of reducing anxiety by distorting reality
what are strengths of freuds theories
experiences of infancy, and psychological explanation of mental illness
what are weaknesses of freuds theories?
unconscious and dreams- not as observable or testable, overemphasized sexual instincts.
explain eriksons psychosocial theory
development in psychosocial stages 1-8. in personality with trust , autonomy, initiative, industry, maturity, intimacy, generativity, ego integrity and vise versas
strengths of eriksons theory?
role of culture in personality, lifespan perspective
weaknesses of eriksons theory
one crisis at each stage, values western ideals
What were John Watson's Learning theories?
Behaviorism, and Social-Cognitive
Operant conditioning causes extinction when?
the reinforcement stops...use partial reinforcement to keep it from going extinct
What is the social-cognitive theory?
it is observational learning/modeling paying attention, retention, reproduction, reinforcement
What are positives of Watsons theories?
consistencies and inconsistencies in behavior, change in children
What are some negatives to watsons theories?
doesn't take into account internal motivations, feelings etc.
What is piaget's theory?
cognitive revolution, "little scientist", schema, assimilation, accommodation
Vygotsky's Theory is??
Sociocultural...learning is guided by the adult, scaffolding, zone of proximal development
vygotsky...memory, younger vs. older children's memory and processing abillities,
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