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41 terms

Biology Chapter 35

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specialized cell
cell that is uniquely suited to performing a particular function
epithelial tissue
tissue that covers the surface of the body and lines internal organs
connective tissue
tissue that holds organs in place and binds different parts of the body together
nervous tissue
tissue that receives messages from the body's external and internal environment, analyzes the data, and directs the response
muscle tissue
tissue that controls the internal movement of materials in the body, as well as external movement
homeostasis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
feedback inhibition
process in which the product or result stops or limits the process
neuron
cell that carries messages throughout the nervous system
cell body
largest part of a typical neuron; contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm
dendrite
extension of the cell body of a neuron that carries impulses from the environment or from other neurons toward the cell body
axon
long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body of a neuron
myelin sheath
insulating membrane surrounding the axon in some neurons
resting potential
electrical charge across the cell membrane of a resting neuron
action potential
reversal of charges across the cell membrane of a neuron; also called a nerve impulse
threshold
minimum level of a stimulus required to activate a neuron
synapse
location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell
neurotransmitter
chemical used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse to another cell
meninges
three layers of connective tissue in which the brain and spinal cord are wrapped
cerebrospinal fluid
fluid in the space between the meninges that acts as a shock absorber that protects the central nervous system
cerebrum
area of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities of the body
cerebellum
region of the brain that coordinates body movements
brain stem
structure that connects the brain and spinal cord; includes the medulla oblongata and the pons
thalamus
brain structure that receives messages from the sense organs and relays the information to the proper region of the cerebrum for further processing
hypothalamus
brain structure that acts as a control center for recognition and analysis of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and body temperature
reflex
quick automatic response to a stimulus
reflex arc
sensory receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, and effector that are involved in a quick response to a stimulus
sensory receptor
neuron that reacts to a specific stimulus, such as light or sound, by sending impulses to other neurons and eventually to the central nervous system
pupil
small opening in the middle of the iris through which light enters the eye
lens
transparent object behind the iris that changes shape to help adjust the eye's focus to see near or distant objects
retina
innermost layer of the eye; contains photoreceptors
rod
photoreceptor in eye that is sensitive to light but not to colors
cone
in gymnosperms, a seed-bearing structure; in the retina of the eye, a photoreceptor that responds to light of different colors, producing color vision
cochlea
fluid-filled part of the inner ear; sends nerve impulses to the brain through the cochlear nerve
semicircular canal
one of three structures within the inner ear that help monitor the position of the body
taste bud
sense organ that detects the flavor of a substance
drug
any substance, other than food, that causes a change in the structure or function of the body
stimulant
drug that speeds up the actions regulated by the nervous system
depressant
drug that decreases the rate of functions regulated by the brain
fetal alcohol syndrome
group of birth defects caused by the effects of alcohol on a fetus
drug abuse
intentional misuse of any drug for nonmedical purposes
addiction
uncontrollable dependence on a drug