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Ch. 17 WH

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Renaissance
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
humanism
an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics
secular
worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion; temporal
patron
person who financially supports the arts
perspective
three dimensions on a flat surface
vernacular
the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)
utopia
a book by Sir Thomas More (1516) describing the perfect society on an imaginary island
William Shakespeare
Greatest of Renaissance authors in Elizabethan England, he reflected ideals of Greek and Roman culture, and humanism. His comedies, tragedies, histories and sonnets were all written in the English vernacular.
Johann Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
indulgence
the remission by the pope of the temporal punishment in purgatory that is still due for sins even after absolution
Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Lutheran
a member of a Protestant church founded on the teachings of Martin Luther
Protestant
Christians who belonged to non-catholic churches
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
annul
declare invalid
Anglican
the Church of England, run by Queen Elizabeth I
predestination
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power
Calvinism
a body of religious teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John Calvin
theocracy
government run by religious leaders
Presbyterian
a member of a Protestant Church governed by elders (Presbyters) and founded on the teachings of John Knox
Anabaptist
during the Reformation, a Protestant group that believed in baptizing only those persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian and in separation of church and state.
Catholic Reformation
A 16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Council of Trent
This was the meeting called by Pope Paul III that secured reconciliation with the Protestants