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The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history


an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics


worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion; temporal


person who financially supports the arts


three dimensions on a flat surface


the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)


a book by Sir Thomas More (1516) describing the perfect society on an imaginary island

William Shakespeare

Greatest of Renaissance authors in Elizabethan England, he reflected ideals of Greek and Roman culture, and humanism. His comedies, tragedies, histories and sonnets were all written in the English vernacular.

Johann Gutenberg

German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)


the remission by the pope of the temporal punishment in purgatory that is still due for sins even after absolution


a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches


a member of a Protestant church founded on the teachings of Martin Luther


Christians who belonged to non-catholic churches

Peace of Augsburg

1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler


declare invalid


the Church of England, run by Queen Elizabeth I


the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power


a body of religious teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John Calvin


government run by religious leaders


a member of a Protestant Church governed by elders (Presbyters) and founded on the teachings of John Knox


during the Reformation, a Protestant group that believed in baptizing only those persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian and in separation of church and state.

Catholic Reformation

A 16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation


Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.

Council of Trent

This was the meeting called by Pope Paul III that secured reconciliation with the Protestants

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