APUSH Revolutionary Era Vocabulary Chapters 5 & 6
Terms in this set (79)
Albany Plan of Union
plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown
Governor of Boston who ordered cargo of tea to be unloaded in Boston despite colonial objection
Seven Years War
Known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.
French fort that was site of first major battle of French and Indian War; General Washington led unsuccessful attack on French troops and was then defeated at Fort Necessity, marking beginning of conflict.
Battle of Quebec
Patriots tried to advance and capture Quebec, but were quickly turned back by the British. Americans suffered almost half of their troops killed, wounded, or captured. Both General's were killed in the battle. Was a major turning point in the French and Indian War for the British.
Treaty of Paris-1763
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain
a term coined by British statesman Edmund Burke regarding the English colonies; idea that the colonies benefited by being left alone, without too much British interference
policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its supply of gold and silver.
English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances. King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1760 to 1820
A tax on the production, sale, or consumption of goods produced within a country. Sparked the Whiskey Rebellion.
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
A mob of Pennsylvania frontiersmen led by the Paxtons who massacred a group of non-hostile Indians.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Writs of assistance
legal document that enabled officers to search homes and warehouses for goods that might be smuggled. Basically an unlimited search warrant.
(1764) British deeply in debt partly to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
Became prime minister of Britain in 1763 he persuaded the Parliament to pass a law allowing smugglers to be sent to vice-admiralty courts which were run by British officers and had no jury. He did this to end smuggling.
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
angry residents of Rhode Island boarded this British ship, set it afire, and sank it in the Narragansett Bay. The angry British, instead of putting the accused attackers on trial in colonial courts, sent a special commission to America with power to send the defendants back to England for trial.
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members
no taxation without representation
reflected the colonists' belief that they should not be taxed because they had no direct representatives in Parliament
British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization formed after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts; organization used poth peaceful and violent means of protest
Stamp Act Congress
group of colonists who protested the Stamp Act, saying that Parliament couldn't tax without colonist' consent
a group's refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies
colonists agreed not to import goods taxed by England
Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence
a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies (1736-1799)
an act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists
The act that put taxes on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea in 1767.
Philadelphia lawyer; reacted to "external" duties of Townshend Acts in Letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer with argument that external taxation was legal only when designed to regulate trade, not raise a revenue
Letters from a Farmer in Philadelphia
Published by John Dickenson that argues that external taxation was legal only when designed to regulate trade, not raise a revenue.
Mercy Otis Warren
New England woman who wrote many works. These included a history of the revolution, a play, and poems One of America's first writers.
A convention where several colonial women got together and created clothes for their families and to sell.
American revolutionary patriot who was president of the Continental Congress
The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans
Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. He hoped for an early peace during the Revolutionary War and resigned after Cornwallis' surrender in 1781.
Committees of Correspondence
Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies
It was a movement during the 1760's by western North Carolinians, mainly Scots-Irish, that resented the way that the Eastern part of the state dominated political affairs. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists.
Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party
British East India Company
Government charted joint-stock company that controlled spice trade in the East Indies after the Dutch
This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.
Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
First Continental Congress
Delegates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with Britain and to promote independence
Another name for Loyalists
party that favored a national bank, protective tariffs and eventually the abolition of slavery
town in eastern Massachusetts near Boston where the first battle of the American Revolution was fought
the first battle of the American Revolution (April 19, 1775). British wanted to get the weapons that were held in Concord.
Second Continental Congress
It met in 1776 and drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence, which justified the Revolutionary War and declared that the colonies should be independent of Britain. Also selected George Washington as military leader.
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Battle of Bunker Hill
First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths.
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Someone show wanted to remain under colonial rule, wanted to remain in the same situation. 20 % of population, or 500,000 people were this. Older and wealthy.
Numerous in New England at the time, younger and would like change.
German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.
Baron von Steuben
German commander who came to Valley Forge to help George Washington; trained the colonists and taught them discipline
Marquis de Lafayette
He was very rich and noble when he arrived in America at the age of 19 years old. He believed in the liberty that the Americans were fighting for and asked to help. He became a general on Washington's staff and fought hard. He was known as "the soldier's friend," and is buried in france but his grave is covered with earth from Bunker Hill.
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
Trenton and Princeton
two restounding victories for the Continental army that restored hope in Washington and his men
Important battle of the Revolutionary War. The American victory encouraged France to aid colonial independence from Britain.
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops
in 1781 during the American Revolution the British under Cornwallis surrendered after a siege of three weeks by American and French troops
General Charles Cornwallis
British general who fought the Patriots in the south; surrounded at Yorktown and surrendered to George Washington
United States general and traitor in the American Revolution
Treaty of Paris
agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent country
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)
American poet (born in Africa) who was the first recognized Black writer in America (1753-1784)
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
Weakness of Articles
no power to levy taxes, no power to regulate trade, could not enforce laws, need 9 of 13 states to pass laws, amendments required approval of all states, no executive branch, and no national court system.