40 terms

chapter 10

STUDY
PLAY
the backbone of DNA consists of
a repeating sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate pattern
transcription
the transfer of genetic information from DNA into an RNA molecule
translation
the transfer of the information from RNA into a protein.
DNA and RNA are polymers composed of what monomers
nucleotide
the backbone of DNA consists of
a repeating sugar - phosphate sugar phosphate pattern
thymine and cytosine differ from adenine and guanine in that
thymine and cytosine are single ring structure, whereas adenine and guanine are double ring structure
RNA contains the nitrogenous base uracil
instead of thymine which is only found in DNA
if adenine makes up 20% of bases in a DNA double helix, what per cent of the base are guanine?
30%
in a DNA double helix adenine pairs with
thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine
Who discovered the structure of DNA?
Watson and crick
Evidence for the spinal nature of DNA came from
X-ray crystallography studies
what type of chemical bond joins the bases of complementary DNA strands
hydrogen
after replication
each new DNA double helix consists of one old strand and one new strand
DNA replication
requires the cooperation of over a dozen enzyme and other proteins
the modern phrasing of Beadle and Tatum's hypothesis about relationships between genes and their products is one gene-one
polypeptide
what name is given to the collection of traits exhibited by an organism
phenotype
how many nucleotides make up a codon
three
the shared genetic code of all life on earth is evidence that
all life share a common ancestry
transcription is the
manufacture of a strand of RNA complementary to a strand of DNA
if a strand of DNA has the sequence AAGCTC transcription will result in
single RNA strand with the sequence UUCGAG
which of the following enzymes is responsible for RNA synthesis
RNA ploymerase
the region of DNA where RNA synthesis begins is the
promoter
the correct sequence of events occurring during transcription is
initiation, elongation, termination
the absence of a terminator in transcription will result in
the production of a longer RNA molecule
what protects mRNA from attack by cellular enzymes
a cap and tail
the expressed (coding) regions of eukaryotic genes are
exons
translation converts the information stored in
RNA a polypeptide
the RNA that is translated into polypeptide is
messenger RNA
the DNA codon AGT codes for an amino acid carried by a tRNA with the anticodon
AGU
where is translation accomplished
ribosomes
during translation, what is the correct order of events that occur as an amino acid is added
codon recognition, peptide bond formation, translocation
peptide bonds from between
amino acids
a mutation within a gene that will insert a premature stop codon in mRNA would
result in a shortened polypeptide chain
what is the smallest number of nucleotides that must be added or subtracted to change the triplet grouping of the genetic message
one
what is the ultimate source of diversity
mutation
mad cow diseases is caused by
infection proteins called prions
how can bacteriophage DNA be spread from cell to cell without causing cell death
via a lysogenic cycle
plant viruses
often uses RNA rather than DNA as genetic material
a prophage is a bacteria as a provirus is to animal cells
prophage, provirus
HIV must use its own reverse transcriptase to produce
reverse transcriptase