How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

178 terms

word roots #2

word roots
STUDY
PLAY
a-, an-
absence, lack

ex. abiotic = absence of life
anaerobic = absence of oxygen
-able
able to, capable of

ex. viable = having the ability of live or exist
actino-
ray

ex. actinomycetes = bacteria that form star-shaped (with rays) colonies
aer-
air

ex. aerate = to add air
albo-
white

ex. streptomyces albus = produces white colonies
amphi-
around

ex. amphitrichous = tufts of flagella at both ends of the cell
amyl-
starch

ex. amylase = an enzyme that degrades starch
ana-
up

ex. anabolism = building up
ant-, anti-
opposed to preventing

antimicrobial = a substance that prevents microbial growth
archae-
ancient

ex. archaeobacteria = "ancient" bacteria thought to be like the first form of life
aur-
gold

ex. staphyococcus aureus = gold pigemented colonies
aut-, auto-
self

ex. autotroph = self-feeder
bacillo-
a little stick

ex. bacillus = rod-shaped
basid-
base

ex. basidium - a cell that bears spores
bio-
life

ex. biology = study of living things
blast-
bud

ex. blastospore = spores formed by budding
bovi-
cattle

ex. myicobacterium bovis = a bacterium found in cattle
brevi-
short

ex. lactobacillus brevis = a bacterium with short cells
campylo-
curved

ex. campylobacter = curved rod
carcin-
cancer

ex. carcinogen = a cancer causing agent
caseo-
cheese

ex. caseous = cheeselike
cerato-
horn

ex. keratin = the horny substance making up skin and nails
chlamydo-
covering

ex. chlamydoconidia = condidia formed inside hyphae
chloro-
green

ex. chlorophyll = green-pigmented molecule
chrom-
color

ex. chromosome = readily stained molecule
metachromatic = intracelluar colored granules
chryso-
golden

ex. steptomyces chryseus = bacteria with golden colonies
-cide
killing

ex. bactericide = an agent that kills bacteria
cili-
eyelash

ex. cilia = a hairlike organelle
co-, con-
together

ex. concentric = having a common center, together in the center
cocci-
a berry/spherical

ex. coccus = a spherical cell
col-, colo-
colon

ex. escherichia coli = a bacterium found in the large intestine
conido-
dust

ex. conidia = spores developed at the end of aerial hypha, never enclosed
-cul
small form

ex. particle = a small part
-cut or cut-
the skin

ex. firmicutes = bacteria with a firm cell wall, gram positive
cyano-
blue

ex. cyanobacteria = blue-green pigmented organisms
cyst-
bladder

ex. cystitis = inflammation of the urinary bladder
cyt-
cell

ex. cytology = the study of cells
de-
undoing, reversal, loss, removal

ex. deactivation = becoming inactive
di-, diplo-
twice, double

ex. diplococci = pairs of spherical bacteria
dia-
through, between

ex. diaphragm = the wall through or between two areas
dys-
difficult, faulty, painful

ex. dysfunction = disturbed function
ec-, ex- ecto-
out, outside, away from

ex. excrete = to remove material from the body
en-, em-
in, inside

ex. encysted = enclosed in a cyst
entero-
intestine

ex. enterobacter = a bacterium found in the intestine
eo-
dawn, early

ex. eobacterium = a 3.4 billion year old fossized bacterium
epi-
upon, over

ex. epidemic = number of cases of a disease over the normally expected number
erythro-
red

ex. erythema = redness of the skin
eu-
well, proper, new

ex. eukaryote = a cell with a proper "kernel"/nucleus
exo-
outside, outer layer

ex. exogenous = from outside the body
extra-
outside, beyond

ex. extracellular = outside the cells of an organism
firmi-
strong

ex. bacillus firmus = forms resistant endospores
flagell-
a whip

ex. flagellum = a projection from a cell; in eukaryotes it pulls cell in a whiplike fashion
flav-
yellow

ex. flavobacterium = cells produce yellow pigment
fruct-
fruit

ex. fructose = fruit sugar
-fy
to make

ex. magnify = to make larger
gamet-
to marry

ex. gamete = reproductive cells
gastr-
stomach

ex. gastritis = inflammation of the stomach
gel-
to stiffen

ex. gel = a solidified colloid
-gen
an agent that initiates

ex. pathogen = any agent that produces disease
-genesis
formation

ex. pathogenesis = production of disease
germ, germin-
bud

ex. germ = part of an organism capable of developing
-gony
reproduction

ex. schizogony = multiple fission producing many cells
gracili-
thin

ex. aquaspirillum gracile = a thin cell
halo-
salt

ex. halophile = an organism that can live in high salt concentrations
haplo-
one, single

ex. haploid = half the number of chromosomes
hema-, hemato-, hemo-
blood

ex. haemophilius = a bacterium that requires nutrients from blood cells
hepat-
liver

ex. hepatitis = inflammation of the liver
herpes
creeping

ex. herpes = lesions appear to creep along the skin
hetero-
different, other

ex. heterotroph = obtains organic nutrients from other organisms; other feeder
hist-
tissue

ex. histology = the study of tissues
hom-, homo-
same

ex. homofermenter = an organism that produces on one type of acid from carbohydrate fermentation
hydr-, hydro-
water

ex. dehydration = loss of body water
hyper-
excess

ex. hypertonic = having greater osmotic pressure in comparison with another
hypo-
below, deficient

ex. hypotonic = having a lessor osmotic pressure in comparison with another
im-
not, in

ex. impermeable = not permitting passage
inter-
between

ex. intercellular = between cells
intra-
within, inside

ex. intracellular = within a cell
io-
violet

ex. iodine = a chemical element that produces a violet vaper
iso-
equal, same

ex. isotonic = having the same osmotic pressure in comparison with another
-itis
inflammation

ex. colitis = inflammation of the large intestine
-karyo, -caryon
a seed, nut

ex. eukaryote = a cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus
kin-
movement

ex. streptokinase = an enzyme that lyses of moves fibrin
lacti-
milk

ex. lactose = the sugar of milk
leuko-
whiteness

ex. leukocyte = a white blood cell
lip-, lipo-
fat, lipid

ex. lipase = an enzyme that breaks down fat
-logy
the study of

ex. pathology = the study of changes in structure and function brought on by disease
lute-, luteo-
yellow

ex. micrococcus luteus = has yellow colonies
-lysis
loosening

ex. hydrolysis = chemical decompostion of a compound into other compounds as a result of taking up water
macro-
largeness

ex. macromolecules = large molecules like lipis, proteins and carbohydrates
meningo-
membrane

ex. meningitis = inflammation of the membranes of the brain
meso-
middle

ex. mesophile = an organism whose optimum temperature is in the middle range
meta-
beyond, between, transition

ex. metabolism = chemical changes occurring within a living organism
micro-
smallness

ex. microscope = and instrument used to make small objects appear large
-monas
a unit

ex. Methylomonas = a unit (bacterium) that utilizes methane as its carbon source
mono-
singleness

ex. monotrichous = having one flagellum
morpho-
form

ex. morphology = the study of the form and structure of organisms
multi-
many

ex. multinuclear = having several nuclei
mur-
wall

ex. murein = a component of bacterail cell walls
mus-, muri-
mouse

ex. murein typhus = a form of typhus endemic in mice
mut-
to change

ex. mutation = a sudden change in characteristics
myco-, -mycetoma, -myces
a fungus

ex. Saccharomyces = sugar fungus, a genus of yeast
myxo-
slime, mucus

ex. Myxobacteriales = an order of slime producing bacteria
necro-
a corpse

ex. necrosis = cell death or death of a portion of tissue
-nema
a thread

ex. Treponema = has long, threadlike cells
nigr-
black

ex. Aspergillus niger = a fungus that produces black conidia (reproductive structures)
ob-
before, against

ex. obstruction = impeding or blocking up
oculo-
eye

ex. monocular = pertaining to one eye
-oecium, ecium
a house

ex. perithecium = an ascus with an opening that encloses spores
-oid
like, resembling

ex. coccoid = resembling a coccus
oligio-
small, few

ex. oligiosaccharide = a carbohydrate composed of a few (7-10) monosaccharides
-oma
tumor

ex. lymphoma = a tumor of the lymphatic tissues
ortho-
straight, direct

ex. orthomyzovirus = a virus witha straight, tubular capsid
-osis, -sis
condition of

ex. lysis = the condition of loosening; symbiosis = the condition of living together
pan-
all universal

ex. pandemic = an epidemic affecting a large region
para-
beside, near

ex. parasite = an organism the "feeds beside" another
peri-
around

ex. peritrichous = projections from all side
phaeo-
brown

ex. Phaeophyta = brown algae
phago-
eat

ex. phagocyte = a cell that engulfs and digests particles or cells
-phil, philo-
liking, preferring

ex. thermophile = an organism that prefers high temperatures
-phore
bears, carries

ex. conidophore = a hypha that conidia
-phyll
leaf

ex. chlorophyll = the green pigment in leaves
-phyte
plant

ex. saprophyte = a plant that obtains nutrients from decomposing organic matter
pil-
a hair

ex. pilus = a hairlike projection from a cell
plankto-
wandering, roaming

ex. plankton = organisms drifting or wandering in water
-pnoea, -pnea
breathing

ex. dyspnea = difficultly in breathing
pod-
foot

ex. psuedopod = footlike structure
poly-
many

ex. polymorphism = many forms
post-
after, behind

ex. posterior = a place behind a (specific) part
pre-, pro-
before, ahead of

ex. prokaryote = a cell without a nucleus; pregnant = before birth
pseudo-
false

ex. pseudopod = false foot
psychro-
cold

ex. psychrophile = an organism that grows best at low temperatures
pyo-
pus

ex. pyogenic = pus forming
rhabdo-
stick, rod

ex. rhabdovirus = an elongated bullet-shaped virus
rhin-
nose

ex.rhinitis = inflammation of mucous membranes in the nose
rhizo-
root

ex. Rhizobium = a bacterium that grows in plant roots: mycorrhiza = a fungus that grows in or on roots
rhodo-
red

ex. Rhodospirillum = a red-pigmented, spiral-shaped bacteria
rubri-
red

ex. Clostridium rubrium = has red pigmented colonies
rumin-
throat

ex. Ruminococcus = a bacterium associated witha a rumen (modified esophagus)
saccharo-
sugar

ex. disaccharide = a sugar consisting of two simple sugars
sapr-
rotten

ex. Saprolegnia = a fungus that lives on dead animals
schizo-
split

ex. schizomycetes = organisms that reproduce by splitting and an early name for bacteria
scolec-
worm

ex. scolex = the "head" of a tapeworm
-scope, -scopic
watcher

ex. microscope = an instrument used to watch small things
semi-
half

ex. semicircular = having the form of a half a circle
sept-
rotting

ex. septic = presence of bacteria that could cause decomposition
siphon-
tube

ex. Seiphonaptera = the order of fleas, insects with tubular mouths
soma-
body

ex. somatic cells = cells of the body other than gametes
speci-
particular things

ex. species = the smallest group of organisms with similar properties; specify = to indicate exactly
spiro-
coil

ex. spriochete = a bacterium with a coiled cell
sporo-
spore

ex. sporangium = a structure that holds spores
staphylo-
clusters

ex. Staphylococcus = a bacterium that forms grape-like clusters of cells
-stasis
arrest, fixation

ex. bacteriostasis = cessation of bacterial growth
strepto-
twisted

ex. Streptococcus = a bacterium that forms twisted chains of cellls
sub-
beneath, under

ex. subcutaneous = just under the skin
super-
above, upon

ex. superior = the quality or state of being above others
sym-, syn-
together, with

ex. synapse = the region of communication between two neurons; synthesis = putting together
-taxi
to touch

ex. chemotaxis = response to the presence (touch) of chemicals
therm-
heat

ex. thermus = a bacterium that grows in hot springs
thio-
sulfur

ex. Thiobacillus = a bacterium capable of oxidizing sulfur-containing compounds
-tone, -tonic
strength

ex. hypotonic = having less strength (osmotic pressure)
tox-
poison

ex. antitoxin = effective against poison
trans-
across, through

ex. transport = movement of substances
tri-
three

ex. trimester = three-month period
trich-
a hair

ex. peritrichous = hairlike projections from cells
-troph
food

ex. autotrophic = organism that can make its own food
-ty
condition of, state

ex. immunity = the condition of being resistant to disease or infection
undul-
wavy

ex. undulating = rising and falling, presenting a wavy appearance
uni-
one

ex. unicellular = pertaining to one cell
vaccin-
cow

ex. vaccination = injection of a vaccine (first true vaccine used cow pox virus)
vacu-
empty

ex. vacuoles = an intracellular space that appears empty
vesic-
bladder

ex. vesicle = a bubble
vitr-
glass

ex. in vitro = in culture media in a glass (or plastic) container
-vorous
to eat

ex. carnivore = an animal that eats other animals
xantho-
yellow

ex. Xanthomonas = produces yellow colonies
xeno-
strange

ex. axenic = sterile, free of strange organism
xero-
dry

ex. xerophyte = any plant that tolerates dry conditions
zoo-
animal

ex. zoology = the study of animals
-zyme
ferment

ex. any protein in living cells that catalyzes chemical reactions