44 terms

Chapter 5 Test: Earth's Layers: Uddo Earth Science

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What type of rock is oceanic crust composed of?
basalt
What type of rock is continental crust composed of?
granite
What is the density of oceanic crust?
more dense
What is the density of continental crust?
less dense
What is the thickness of oceanic crust?
thin
What is the thickness of continental crust?
thick
Granite
intrusive igneous, white/pink, coarse
Basalt
extrusive igneous, grey, fine
What minerals make up the crust?
basalt and granite
What minerals make up the core?
iron and nickel
Crust
solid
Mantle
plastic
Outer Core
liquid
Inner Core
solid
Layers of the Mantle
rigid upper, asthenosphere, and stiffer mantle
Where does convection happen in the mantle?
the asthenosphere
Continental Drift
the gradual separation of Pangea
Pangea
a supercontinent, the theory that all the continents were once stuck together
Fossils
any trace of an ancient organism that is preserved in rock
Faults
breaks in the Earth's crust where rocks have slipped past each other, form along these boundaries
Plate
a section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust
Divergent Boundary
two plates that slowly move away from each other
Mid Ocean Ridge
an undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is being produced, created at divergent boundaries
Central Valley
steep sided valley
Sea Floor Spreading
the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
Convergent Boundary
a boundary where two plates collide or come together
Subduction
the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent boundary
Deep Ocean Trench
a deep valley along the ocean floor where crust sinks into the mantle
Magnetic Stripes
magnetic minerals inside the rock line up in the direction of Earth's pull
Hot Spot
a pocket of magma a volcano forms above it when lava erupts through the crust
Ring of Fire
a belt of volcanoes that circle the Pacific Ocean
Who developed the Theory of Continental Drift?
Alfred Wegner
types of divergent boundaries
Mid Ocean Ridge and Rift Valley
Mid Ocean Ridge
underwater plate boundary and it creates new ocean floor
Rift Valley
on land plate boundary and it creates a wider valley
types of convergent boundaries
oceanic-oceanic, oceanic-continental, and continental-continental
Oceanic-Oceanic
underwater plate boundary and it creates island arcs/volcanoes
Oceanic-Continental
where the ocean meets land and it creates volcanic mountain ranges
Continental-Continental
land meets land and it creates mountains
Converge
come together
Diverge
move apart
What makes plates move?
convection currents
What type of plate boundary does subduction occur at?
convergent boundaries
What plate boundaries do deep ocean trenches occur at?
convergent boundaries